Tamil Nadu has the largest number of international airports in India and the largest bus terminal in Asia. Erode is a Munciple Corporation city situated in Erode Taluka of Erode district. [29][30][31][32] Since then a succession of forty-six ascetics known as "Azhagiya Singar" have headed the monastic order. Chennai is known as the Detroit of South Asia for its vehicle industry and is known for some of the best hospitals. His name was derived as a result of his association with the southern city of Madurai as a protector of the city. Paranjothi, the general of Pallavas who defeated Chalukyas. [3] The Sangam poetry divided space and Tamil land into five allegorical areas and according to the Tirumurugarruppatai (circa 400-450 A.D.) attributed to the great Sangam poet Nakkiirar, Murugan was the presiding deity of the Kurinci region (hilly area). Nemili is a Town Panchayat city in district of Vellore, Tamil Nadu. [68], Madurai Veeran (Tamil: மதுரை வீரன், Maturai Vīraņ lit. As per 2011 Census Tamil nadu population religion wise, Hinduism is the largest religion with 63 million - 87.5%, followed by Muslim with 5.8%, Christianity with 6%. Tamil is the official state language, spoken by the majority of people, along with a number of smaller languages Kannada, Malayalam, and Telugu. [14], The Smartha or the Aryan ritualistic form of Hinduism was introduced into the Tamil lands closer to the 5-6th century AD, it soon became the standard form of Hinduism in the Tamil country and was propagated as such by the different ruling dynasties in Tamil Nadu, the Shaivate and Vaishnavate moments started as a result of this introduction. The saint Appar was involved in Uzhavatru padai, a cleaning and remodification initiative of dilapidated Shiva temples. 48.4% of the state’s population lives in urban areas. Population density of Tamil Nadu increased from 259 people per square kilometer in 1961 to 555 people per square kilometer in 2011 growing at an average annual rate of 13.76%. Hinduism is the largest religion of Tamil Nadu. Ahobila Mutt's Balaji Mandir Pune, Calendar - The calendar mentions Ahobila Mutt disciples celebrating Krishna Jayanti as "Pancharatra Sri Jayanti". As per, 2011 Census of India, Scheduled Castes constitute 20.01% of Tamilnadu's 72 million population. The capital is Chennai, in the northeastern portion of the state. Though it is a Sanskrit name, it is a Tamil concept and Somaskandas are not found in North Indian temples. The total population of Erode is 157101 out of which 78222 are males and 78879 are females. [48], Lingothbhavar or emergence of linga, found in various puranas as a symbol of Shiva, augments the synthesis of the old cults of pillar and phallic worship. He is worshiped as a family deity in most Shaivite families. Unlike the Vedic traditions, these gods generally do not abide in temples but in shrines in the open. Tamil Nadu has a sex ratio of 996 females to 1000 males. Dept. The state adds over 1.2 million people to its current population every year. 1.10 per cent of the population belonged to Scheduled tribes (ST) Other Backward Classes (OBCs) form 68% of Tamil nadu population. The shape of class system in rural Tamil Nadu has changed dramatically because of land reform acts like 'Green Revolution'. It comprises 51,837,507 literates, with a literacy rate of 80.3%. [39] The lingam is the principal deity in most Shiva temples in South India. km) 480 Literates 40524545 TAMIL-NADU ke provincial symbols. A steeply classified class structure existed in Tamil Nadu from around 2000 years because of the correlation in the form of cultivation, population and centralization of political system. The Kanchi Matha serves as the foremost smartha institution in the state, Kanchi Matha's official history states that it was founded by Adi Sankara of Kaladi, and its history traces back to the fifth century BCE. The dance of Shiva in Tillai, the traditional name for Chidambaram, forms the motif for all the depictions of Shiva as Nataraja. In 2018, the state population was recorded to be 80,351,195. The hero stones are dated to the 3rd century C.E. This period was also that of the re-invigorated Hinduism during which temple building and religious literature were at their best.[4]. The development of Hinduism grew up in the temples and mathas of medieval Tamil Nadu with self-conscious rejection of Jain practises. Bagchi & Co., 1998, Pg.105 The Temple of Lord Varadaraja, Kanchi: a critical survey of Dr. K. V. Raman's Sri Varadarajaswami Temple, Kanchi, Pg.36 Hindu and Muslim religious institutions, Andhra Desa, 1300-1600; New Era, 1984, Pg.18 Śrī Vedānta Deśika - By Mudumby Narasimhachary, Sāhitya Akādemī. Similar practices exist among the Kannada and Telugu non-Brahmin castes and Dravidian tribes of Central India. Every January, Tamil Nadu celebrates a harvest festival called Pongal, meaning “spilling over.”. Tirumurugaruppatai is a deeply devotional poem included in the ten idylls (Pattupattu) of the age of the third Sangam. He is the patron deity of the Tamil land (Tamil Nadu). He is one of the 21 associate folk-deities of Ayyanar and is hence one of the so-called Kaval Deivams of the Tamils. This is true of most States. Tamil Nadu was ruled by several empires, including the Chera, Chola, and Pandyan empires, which helped shape the state’s cuisine, culture, and architecture. The Cholas went on to becoming a great power. The total number of Tamil Hindus as per 2011 Indian census is 63,188,168[10] which forms 87.58% of the total popualation of Tamil Nadu. 48% of the population lives in urban spots, one of the highest in the nation. From 1991 to 2001, growth was 11.7% and from 1981 to 1991, growth was 15.4%. Tamil Nadu. Most of them came from the Tamil region and the last of them lived in the 9th century CE. Hinduism is mentioned in the Tamil Sangam literature dated to the 5th century BCE. [63], Bhairava is one of the eight forms of Shiva, and translation of the adjectival form as "terrible" or "frightful". There are many Mathas (meaning monastic institutions) and temples based out of Tamil Nadu. With a total of 72,147,030 people living in the state, Tamil Nadu is ranked at 6th in terms of state-wise population in India. State in India. The Ramanathapuram Municipality has population of 61,440 of which 30,904 are males while 30,536 are females as per report released by Census India 2011. During the fourth to eighth centuries century CE, Tamil Nadu saw the rise of the Pallavas under Mahendravarman I and his son Mamalla Narasimhavarman I. Population of Tamil Nadu in 2015. It is sometimes referred to as henotheistic (i.e., involving devotion to a single god while accepting the existence of others), but any such term is an overgeneralization. Tamil Nadu Let women rule for 2.5 years: Tamil Nadu Deputy CM Panneerselvam Tamil Nadu The Hindu announces Margazhi competition for young Indian classical musicians As of 1987, there were a total of 27 Shiva temples under the control of the adheenam. The city is known for being entrepreneurial and is one of the quickest developing urban zones in India. In addition, worship is not restricted to Sanskrit or a specific caste, but is open to all. The population density is 550 people per square kilometer. Sudalai Madan or Madan, is a regional Tamil male deity who is popular in South India, particularly Tamil Nadu. This trend is set to accelerate. [56] The image depicts Shiva as a teacher of yoga, music, and wisdom, and giving exposition on the shastras (vedic texts) to his disciples. [46] Tolkappiyam, possibly the most ancient of the extant Sangam works, dated between the 3rd century BCE and 5th century CE glorified Murugan, " the red god seated on the blue peacock, who is ever young and resplendent," and " the favoured god of the Tamils.". Ayyanar (Tamil: ஐயனார்) is worshipped as a guardian deity predominantly in Tamil Nadu and Tamil villages in Sri Lanka. Name Status Tamil Nadu borders Andhra Pradesh to its south, Karnataka to its southeast, and Kerala to its east. [44] During the 7th century, Vatapi Ganapati idol was brought from Badami (Vatapi - Chalukya capital) by When India became independent in 1947, Madras Presidency became Madras State, comprising present day Tamil Nadu, coastal Andhra Pradesh, South Canara district Karnataka, and parts of Kerala. As per census 2011, Tamil Nadu, has a population of 7,21,47,030 individuals with a decent ratio of males and females. Temples such as the Meenakshi Amman Temple at Madurai and Nellaiappar Temple at Tirunelveli are the best examples of Pandyan temple architecture.[6]. [63] Somaskanda was the principal deity during Pallava period replacing lingam, including the temples at Mahabalipuram, a UNESCO world heritage site. Tamil Nadu Population 2019 –86.3712 Million. Subsequent to this defeat, many incompetent kings succeeded to the throne of Vijayanagara with the result that its grip loosened over its feudatories among whom the Nayaks of Madurai and Tanjore were among the first to declare their independence, despite initially maintaining loose links with the Vijayanagara kingdom. But the cult was not popular and Somaskanda images were relegated to subshrines. [72] Leaving 840 in Buddhism and 837 in Sikhism, leaving the remaining 11855827 in Hinduism. Brihadeshwara Temple in Thanjavur is a classical example of the magnificent architecture of the Chola kingdom. The population of children between age 0-6 is 49086 which is 9.07% of total population. Architecturally when there are separate shrines dedicated to the utsava(festival deity) of Somaskanda, they are called Thyagaraja shrines. "[9] As the Vijayanagara Empire went into decline after mid-16th century, the Nayak governors, who were appointed by the Vijayanagar kingdom to administer various territories of the empire, declared their independence. While it has an industrial core … Thiruvaduthurai Adheenam is a mutt based in the town of Thiruvaduthurai in Kuthalam taluk of Nagapattinam District, Tamil Nadu, India. [15] A related claim is that Adi Sankara came to Kanchipuram, and that he established the Kanchi mutt named "Dakshina Moolamnaya Sarvagnya Sri Kanchi Kamakoti Peetam" in a position of supremacy (Sarvagnya Peetha) over the other mathas of the subcontinent, before his death there. [72] The literacy rate (who can read, write and understand) among these stands at 63.2 percent which is lower than the 73.5 state level literacy rate. [59] All temples in the Thygaraja cult have images of Somaskandar as Thyagarajar - though iconographically similar, they are iconologically different. It is the seicont lairgest state economy in Indie as o 2012. Tirupati Balaji was a Buddhist shrine, Sanjivan Publications, 1991, "Vadakalai Srivaishnava Festivals' Calendar - The source mentions Pancharatra & Munitraya Krishna Jayantis celebrated by Ahobila Mutt & Andavan Ashrams respectively". [60] In the Tiruvarur Thygarajar Temple, the principal deity is Somaskanda under the name of Thyagaraja. Pudukkottai remained as a princely state. The period started with the rivalry between the Pandyas and the Pallavas, which in turn caused the revival of the Cholas. Appar, one of the early Saivite saint of the 7th century, gives evidence of this knowledge of puranic episodes relating to Lingothbhavar form of Shiva while Tirugnana Sambandar refers this form of Shiva as the nature of light that could not be comprehended by Brahma and Vishnu. [3], The Cholas who were very active during the Sangam age were entirely absent during the first few centuries. Ganesha, also spelled Ganesa or Ganesh, also known as Ganapati, Vinayaka and Pillaiyar (Tamil: பிள்ளையார்), is one of the deities best-known and most widely worshipped in the Hindu pantheon. [50], Nataraja or Nataraj, The Lord (or King) of Dance; (Tamil: கூத்தன் (Kooththan)) is a depiction of the Hindu god Shiva as the cosmic dancer Koothan who performs his divine dance to destroy a weary universe and make preparations for god Brahma to start the process of creation. Karuppu Sami (Tamil: கருப்புசாமி) (also called by many other names) is one of the regional Tamil male deities who is popular among the rural social groups of South India, especially Tamil Nadu and small parts of Kerala. The Hayagriva idol worshipped here is said to be handed down from Vedanta Desika.[21]. The Cholas excelled in building magnificent temples. Only four States among those with a population exceeding 20 million in 2001 - Haryana, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Punjab - report a decline in population sex ratios between 1991 and 2001. This aspect of Shiva is his personification of the ultimate awareness, understanding and knowledge. Muneeswarar (Tamil முனீஸ்வரன்) is a Hindu god. English is used as an additional official language for communication purposes. As per the 2011 census, there were 44 lakh Christians in Tamil Nadu, which is roughly six percent of the state’s population. University Grants Commission, University of Allahabad. The total number of Tamil Hindus as per 2011 Indian census is 63,188,168[2] which forms 87.58% of the total popualation of Tamil Nadu. Rank Name District Population 2011 1 … Coimbatore is well known for its engineering firms, textile industries, educational institutes, and automobile parts manufacturing. The twelve Azhwars (saint poets of Vaishnavite tradition) and sixty-three Nayanars (saint poets of Shaivite tradition) are regarded as exponents of the bhakti tradition of Hinduism in South India. Narasimhavarman II built the Shore Temple which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In the early 18th century, the eastern parts of Tamil Nadu came under the dominions of the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Nawab of the Carnatic. Abode to a number of historic monuments, multi-religious pilgrimage sites, hill stations and world heritage sites, the state is one of the popular tourist destinations. Name Abbr. She is the foremost among the Dasa Mahavidyas, ten fierce Tantric goddesses.[70]. There are few worship forms and practices in Hinduism that are specific to Tamil Nadu. The total muslim population 4.2 million is … Madurai is one of the oldest urban regions in the world and currently serves as one of the centers for industry and education in South Tamil Nadu. This is referred to as the Dark Age in Tamil history and Hinduism in Tamil Nadu. It represents the Tamil-speaking area of what was formerly the Madras Presidency of British India. [72], The Self-Respect Movement is a movement with the aim of achieving a society where backward castes have equal human rights,[73] and encouraging backward castes to have self-respect in the context of a caste based society that considered them to be a lower end of the hierarchy. It is currently headed by Sri Arunagirinatha Gnanasambantha Desika Paramacharya. In 2011, population density for Tamil Nadu was 555 people per square kilometer. Pg.57 The history of the Vijayanagar Empire, Volume 1; M. H. Rāma Sharma, Popular Prakashan, 1978. [47] The cult of Skanda disappeared during the 6th century and was predominantly expanded during late 7th century Pallava period - Somaskanda sculptured panels of the Pallava period stand as a testament. In terms of religion, an overwhelming majority of Tamil Nadu’s population are Hindus. Tamil Nadu has a total population of 81.5 million, making it the seventh most populous state in India. The Nayaks of Madurai and Nayaks of Thanjavur were most prominent of them all in the 17th century. (1971). A number of political parties in Tamil Nadu, such as Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) and All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) owe their origins to the Self-respect movement,[75] the latter a 1972 breakaway from the DMK. [49] The idea emerged from deity residing in a pillar and later visualised as Shiva emerging from the lingam[40] The lingothbhavar image can be found in the first precinct around the sanctum in the wall exactly behind the image of Shiva. The majority of the Tamil Nadu population is comprised of Tamils, speakers of the traditional Dravidian language. The Azhwars, the 12 vaishnavite saint poets of 7th-9th century composed the Divya Prabandha, a literary work praising god Vishnu in 4000 verses. He is considered to be the son of Shiva and Parvati. The population of Chennai is 10.64 million people. These gods are primarily worshipped through festivals throughout the year, during important occasions like harvest or sowing time. He is considered as a form of Shiva, although no scriptural references have been found to validate such claims. By the 9th century CE, during the times of the second Chola monarch Aditya I, his son Parantaka I, Parantaka Chola II itself the Chola empire had expanded into what is now interior Andhra Pradesh and coastal Karnataka, while under the great Rajaraja Chola and his son Rajendra Chola, the Cholas rose as a notable power in south Asia. The head of this Matha is the heredetary Acharya of the Mysore Royal Family. [76], Caste based political parties were not successful during the 1960s to late 80s when the Indian National Congress, Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam and Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam were dominant. Tamil Nadu is one of state in India with population of 72147030. Because the Kalabhras gave protection to Jains and perhaps Buddhists, too, some have concluded that they were anti-Hindu, although this latter view is disputed. Murugan (Tamil: முருகன்) also called Kartikeya, Skanda and Subrahmanya, is more popular in South India especially among Tamil people famously referred as Thamizh Kadavul (God of Tamils). All other religions like Jains and Buddhists represent less than 1%. This revival was short-lived as the Pandya capital of Madurai itself was sacked by Alauddin Khalji's troops under General Malik Kafur in 1316 CE.[8]. Includes estimated population of Paomata, Mao Maram and Purul sub-divisions of Senapati District of Manipur for 2001. [40] Pallavas propagated Somaskanda as the principal form of worship, slightly deviating from the Shaiva agamas; Cholas being strict shaivas, established lingams in all the temples.[41]. [18] The adheenam is the hereditary trustee of four temples in Thanjavur District. The city is both a populous urban area and a beach city. Tamil Nadu is a well-developed state in South India known for its Hindu temples. It is an active centre of Saiva Siddantha philosophy. The city has a rapid growth rate of approximately 17.8%. [67] From the Chola period (9th century C.E) onwards the popularity of Aiyanar-Shasta became even more pronounced. Composers of Tevaram - the Tamil saint poets of 7th century namely Appar, Tirugnana Sambandar and Sundarar with the 9th-century poet Manickavasagar, the composer of Tiruvacakam were saints of Shaivism. [66] Literary references to Aiyanar-Cattan is found in Silappatikaram, a Tamil Jainism work dated to the 4th to 5th century C.E. The earliest reference to Aiynar-Shasta includes two or more hero stones to hunting chiefs from the Arcot district in Tamil Nadu. Local legend states the Tamil word Pillayar splits into Pillai and yaar meaning who is this son, but scholars believe it is derived from the Sanskrit word pulisara meaning elephant. [37], The major worship forms of Shiva temples are for Shiva, Parvathi, Ganesha and Muruga. The religious history of Tamil Nadu is influenced by Hinduism quite notably during the medieval century. 'Advanced History of India', K.A.Nilakanta Sastri (1970)p. 181-182, Allied Publishers Pvt. Majority of Sc class has already converted to christianity. Between 2001 and 2011, the population grew 15.61%. Christians and Muslims grew by … The following are the cities in the state of Tamil Nadu, India, which have a population of 1 lakh and above (city / corporation area only). [19] As of 1987, there were a total of 15 Shiva temples under the control of the adheenam. Hinduism in Tamil Nadu finds its earliest literary mention in the Sangam literature dated to the 5th century BCE. Other sources give the place of his death as Kedarnath in the Himalayas.[16][17]. [42] Ganesa is the first son of Shiva and is given the primary importance in all Shiva temples with all worship starting from him. [64] Sangam literature does not mention Somaskanda and references in literature are found in the 7th century Tevaram. As per the Population Census 2011, there are total 43184 families residing in the Erode city. As per the Census 2011 out of total population of Tamil Nadu, 48.4% people lived in urban regionswhile 51.6% in rural areas. Hinduism in Tamil Nadu finds its earliest literary mention in the Sangam literature dated to the 5th century BCE. In modern times, most of the temples are maintained and administered by the Hindu Religious and Endowment Board of the Government of Tamil Nadu. [12] Most of them came from the Tamil region and the last of them lived in the 9th century CE. [51][52][53] The form is present in most Shiva temples in South India, and is the main deity in the famous temple at Chidambaram. While Wallajah was supported by the English, Chanda Shahib was supported by the French by the middle of the 18th century. This list is based on the 2011 census conducted by Government of India. Madurai is Tamil Nadu’s third-largest city with a population of 1.7 million people. [62] References to the evolution of the Somaskanda concept are found from Pallava period from the 7th century A.D. in carved rear stone walls of Pallava temple sanctums. Tamil Nadu, state of India, located in the extreme south of the country. Kālī is represented as the consort of Shiva, on whose body she is often seen standing. [5] Pallavas ruled a large portion of South India with Kanchipuram as their capital. The state covers an area of 130,058 km sq. On the basis of its average growth in a decade, Tamilnadu was home to 77,881,463 people in 2016. The Cheras ruled in southern India from before the Sangam era (300 BCE – 250 CE) over the Coimbatore, Karur, Salem Districts in present-day Tamil Nadu and present day Kerala from the capital of Vanchi Muthur in the west, (thought to be modern Karur). "[7] Another example is Annamalaiyar Temple located at the city of Tiruvannamalai and the Chidambaram Temple in the heart of the temple town of Chidambaram. The population is also comprised of various indigenous communities. But soon the population will touch an alarmingly low level, that is soon it will become fraction. [43] K. A. Nilakanta Sastri (1963:57-58) thinks that Pallavas adopted the Ganesa motif from Chalukyas. British colonial rule led to the emergence of Chennai, the capital and largest city in Tamil Nadu. Population details. But they have not change their religion legally as they will lose benefit of reservation. The icon links to further information about a selected division including its population structure (gender, urbanization, population group, literacy (a7+), age groups). The sex-ratio of Namakkal Taluk is around 986 compared to 996 which is average of Tamil Nadu state. There are 32 districts, 216 Taluks, 15979 villages and 1109 towns in Tamil Nadu. In the late 18th century, the western parts of Tamil Nadu, came under the dominions of Hyder Ali and later Tipu Sultan, particularly with their victory in the Second Anglo-Mysore War. In 2011 census, the 0-4 population was 46.75% Hindu, while the Muslim population was 37.32% and the Christian population was 15.93%. [71] As per 2001 census, there was a total of 11,857,504 people in Scheduled castes (SC) constituting 19 percent of Tamil Nadu and 7.1 percent of SC population in India. Tâmil Nadu fica no sudeste da península indiana e faz fronteira com os estados de Puducherry (Pondicherry), Querala, Carnataca e Andra Pradexe. This empire lasted for almost two centuries till the defeat of Vijayanagara in the Battle of Talikota in 1565. Tolkappiyam, possibly the most ancient of the extant Sangam works, dated between the 3rd century BCE and 5th century CE glorified Murugan, the favoured god of the Tamils. Mahendra Varman was principally a Buddhist, but converted to Hinduism by the influence of Saivite saints. He seems to have originated in some ancestral guardian spirit of the villages or communities in Tamil Nadu, in a similar manner as Ayyanar. Ltd., New Delhi, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFMichaels2004 (, Hinduism: Beliefs and Practices, by Jeanne Fowler, pgs. The population sex ratio for Tamil Nadu has increased from 974 females per 1,000 males in 1991 to 986 in 2001. Brihadshwara temple is an UNESCO Heritage Site under "Great Living Chola Temples. Both parties are populist with a generally social democratic orientation. Population 62405679 By Sex Male 31400909 Female 31004770 By Area Rural 34921681 Urban 27483998 Density (per Sq. 42-43, at. Tamil Nadu recorded a population of 72,147,030, growing by 97.4 lakh persons in the last decade, of which 80.1 per cent are literates, according to the 2011 census. Notes: a. Worship of these deities is oftentimes seen as the modern continuation of the Dravidian folk religion followed before the Indo-Aryan arrival into Indian Subcontinent. Coimbatore is the second biggest city in Tamil Nadu nestling with the Western Ghats. In kerala hindu population has already gone below 51%. [58] It is the form of Shiva where he is accompanied by Skanda the child and Paravati his consort[59] in sitting posture. In 1969, Madras State was renamed Tamil Nadu, meaning Tamil country. The total number of Tamil Hindus as per 2011 Indian census is 63,188,168 which forms 87.58% of the total popualation of Tamil Nadu.
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