I thank Daniel Blanco, Raúl Cardón, Claudio Chehébar, Raúl Clarke, Mike Christie, Donna Dittman, Martin Funes, Sergio Goldfeder, Manuel Nores, and Alejandre del Valle for their assistance locating stifftail ducks or help exporting and importing specimens. The intromittent organs of various ducks, on the other hand, have been reported to vary in length between 50 and 90 mm, sometimes exceeding that range (Liebe 1914, Hochbaum 1942). Its penis is a whopping 17 inches long, proportionally the longest of all vertebrates. As one proceeds distally, however, the spines diminish in number, become soft and brush-like, and take on a more ochre color, until at the distal terminus they disappear altogether; at this point the outer sheath inverts to become the inner sheath that extends proximally toward the base of the penis. An element of female choice also might play a role if changes in physiology and female behavior also affect the outcome of subsequent sperm competition.   Least Concern. The comparative morphology of the secondary sexual characters of elasmobranch fishes. Sperm competition, sperm depletion, paternal care, and relative testis size in birds. Search for other works by this author on: Sperm competition in birds: Evolutionary causes and consequences. For the Argentine Lake Duck, a number of functional questions remain. Handbook of Australia, New Zealand, and Antarctic birds. What needs to be explained is why birds have lost the penis repeatedly, and moreover, why it has been retained or more complexly developed in some groups like waterfowl. Photographs of the testes and genitalia of a male Argentine Lake Duck (LSUMNS B34025) collected near General Conesa, Río Negro, Argentina, including (A) right and left testes as viewed from the ventral surface of the abdomen, anterior margin at top; (B) cloacal area with skin removed to reveal cloacal muscle ring, everted base of penis sheath, and foreskin, dorsal margin at right; (C) folded penis enclosed in two-layered peritoneal membrane as viewed from the ventral surface of the abdomen, anterior margin at top; (D) folded penis with membranes removed to reveal internal conformation, posterior margin at lower left; (E) unraveled penis loop and dissected cloacal muscle ring as viewed from the ventral surface, posterior margin at right; (F) outer surface of the penis sheath as it might appear in the everted but nonetheless flaccid conformation arranged to reveal spines and ornamentation patterns, proximal margin at bottom. Male - The male Lake Duck in breeding season has a deep chestnut body, a black head and neck, a blue beak, brown eyes, whitish abdomen, grey tail, dark-brown wings, and the legs and feet are dark grey. P.Mineau. Like other ducks, in order for fertilization to occur, the male lake duck inserts his penis (sometimes called the male intromittent organ) into the female's oviduct, and sperm travels up the penis to fertilise the female. Eversion to a centimeter or so, nonetheless, revealed a dense array of black-tipped, white spines at the base of the penis. Carcasses were thawed three months later and prepared as museum skins (n = 6) and a skeletal specimen (n = 1). An unpaired male mallard (drake) attacks a hen, trying to force her to mate -- a struggle to escape ensues Internal dissection of the abdominal cavity revealed a far more extensive coiled structure placed slightly to the left of the center axis of the body, anterior to the mass of muscle that encircles the cloaca and adjacent to the intestine. While 18 inches is the longest pig penis ever observed in nature, their genitalia usually hovers around the 9- to 12-inch range. Like other stifftails (Nomonyx and Oxyura), the Argentine Lake Duck is nested within a clade of promiscuous, dichromatic congeners that share many derived social and morphological characters (McCracken et al. In most instances, the everted penis is clearly visible prior to and after copulation (D. K. Rushton and P. J. Fullagar pers. While most male birds have no external genitalia, male waterfowl have a phallus. 1F). Male ducks are notorious for attempting "forced copulation" with females. The penis of an Ostrich (Struthio camelus), for example, can measure as long as 20 cm when flaccid and is bright red in color (King 1981). ; see Marchant and Higgins 1990). Male Ruddy Duck Courtship Display - Duration: 0:30. Seven adult male Argentine Lake Ducks were collected early in the breeding season on 22 November 1998 from a small wetland (n = 2) and irrigation canal (n = 5) adjacent to the Río Negro near General Conesa, Río Negro, Argentina (40°04′S, 64°16′W). Classification: - Family: Anatidae, Subfamily: Oxyurinae, Genus: Oxyura. I made a series of photographs from the second specimen to document both the position and conformation within the abdomen; dissection of the other four specimens revealed approximately identical features and no need for further photographs. Without regard to size, such structures are uncommon in birds but are present in nonavian groups including crocodiles and turtles (King 1981). 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