2 2. In short, this warm moist air rises, cools down, then condensates and precipitates as thunderstorms. It has a wider variety of climates than most other countries in sub-Saharan Africa, and it has lower average temperatures than other countries within this range of latitude, like Australia, because much of the interior (central plateau or Highveld, including Johannesburg) of South Africa is at a higher elevation. Occasionally tropical cyclones develop, which bring devastating rains and floods. Overall, rainfall is greatest in the east and gradually decreases westward, with some semi-desert areas along the western edge of South Africa. Rainfall generally occurs during summer (November through March), although in the southwest, around Cape Town, rainfall occurs in winter (June to August). [12], CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, "GPCC's new land surface precipitation climatology based on quality-controlled in situ data and its role in quantifying the global water cycle", "Johannesburg & Gauteng Weather and Climate", "Joburg covered by snow as temperature drops", "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated", https://www.environment.gov.za/sites/default/files/docs/nationalclimatechange_adaptationstrategy_ue10november2019.pdf, "Impacts of and Adaptation to Climate Change", "International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health", "Climate change in Africa: costs of mitigating heat stress", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Climate_of_South_Africa&oldid=993504710, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 December 2020, at 23:32. Although generalizing South Africa's weather is difficult, there are a few absolutes that apply throughout the country. These cold fronts bring days of soft rains, but the average annual rainfall in these areas is low. Vegetation tends to vary by climatic zone[5] and these also correspond to the horticultural zones.[6]. Climate and specifically rainfall amount is the chief determinant of type and distribution of the ecoregions of … The winter rainfall region is confined to a relatively small area in the south-west, the Western Cape area, where gentle rain falls from May to August but the summers are dry. Louis Trichardt Climate (South Africa) >>Louis Trichardt Weather by month // weather averages ... Louis Trichardt climate summary The Louis Trichardt lies on 990m above sea level The climate in Louis Trichardt is warm and temperate. They bring in a lot of rainfall especially to the northern parts of Zimbabwe. Cold fronts approach the Western Cape from the west, and pass over the province towards the east. In winter temperatures can drop below freezing, also due to altitude. These hot valleys have a much lower rainfall than the plateau areas between them. In this area, annual precipitation drops below 350 mm (13.5 in), but in a wide west-central area, where the southern part of the Namib Desert is found, it drops even below 200 mm (8 in). Two interlinked datasets, namely the district rainfall and individual rainfall stations datasets were used for the trend analyses, namely, daily time series of 60 individual rainfall … The most extreme is at Wemmershoek in the mountains above Franschhoek, where the average yearly rainfall is more than 3 000 mm. Total Weekly Rainfall Map for South Africa Last Updated: 2020-12-06 09:30:12 SAST Acknowledgment to: NOAA National Weather Service Climate Prediction Center. The annual average rainfall is 713 millimetres (28.1 in), which is mostly concentrated in the summer months. [11] The most severe effect will be targeting the water supply, which has huge effects on the agriculture sector. Despite a projected decline in rainfall in Southern Africa (IPCC, 2007), existing statistics reveal that the valley received mean annual rainfall of 1292.75 mm (standard dev. For most of the country, rain falls mainly in the summer months with brief afternoon thunderstorms. South African Weather Service Prediction System 2.1. Results and discussion 3.1Rainfall variability. Snow is a rare occurrence, with snowfall having been experienced in May 1956, August 1962, June 1964, September 1981, August 2006 (light), on 27 June 2007,[8] accumulating up to 10 centimetres (3.9 in) in the southern suburbs, and most recently on 7 August 2012. [10] This is a critical concern for South Africans as climate change will affect the overall status and wellbeing of the country, for example with regards to water resources. Over most of South Africa, there is a definite rainfall pattern with rainfall increasing from west to east. The aim of this study is to update the analysis of historical rainfall trends with reference to the work from previous studies, through optimizing the highest spatial resolution with the longest possible period of analysis, i.e., 1921–2015. Due to higher temperatures in the valleys, there is a high rate of transpiration (plants losing water) and evaporation, which requires irrigated agriculture. South Africa was divided into a total of 94 rainfall districts by SAWS (then the South African Weather Bureau: SAWB, 1972), which are presented in Fig. Weather at Your Fingertips - The Ultimate Weather Resource for South Africa. The annual time series for each sector is shown in Fig. Climatic zones are often referred to by the seasonal pattern of rainfall. Mpumalanga is a city with a significant rainfall. [2] The average annual rainfall for South Africa is about 464 mm (compared to a global average of 786 mm[3]) but large and unpredictable variations are common. The west coast of South Africa is affected by the Benguela Current, which cools the sea and makes the climate arid, since it inhibits the formation of vertical air currents that could condense. A very important special geographic rainfall distribution pattern is found in the deep river valleys of the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal. [12] As part of its international commitments, South Africa has pledged to peak emissions between 2020 and 2025. The rainy season for most of the country is in the summer which is November through to March. The temperature occasionally drops to below freezing at night, causing frost. The winter rains of the south-western and southern Cape are brought by cyclones or cold fronts. In the Sundays River Valley, the annual rainfall at Addo is only about 390 mm, and the highest temperature in South Africa was recorded at Kirkwood, 55ºC. South Africa experiences hotter and drier weather during the El Niño phase, while La Niña brings cooler and wetter conditions. All Rights Reserved. [12] Above the global average, South Africa had 9.5 tons of CO2 emissions per capita in 2015. Farmers must have contingency plans and strategies in place to limit losses and damage to crops during periods of limited water supply. Other mountains with high rainfall include the Outeniqua Mountain, mountains of the South-western Cape and the Winterberg and Amatola Mountains, in the central parts of the Eastern Cape. In extreme situations, trees can be cut back to reduce the leaf area and limit transpiration. The average annual rainfall for South Africa is about 464 mm (compared to a global average of 786 mm ) but large and unpredictable variations are common. This was done in citrus orchards in the Letsitele area during the severe drought of the 1980s. Also, there is no significant orographic rain effect in the mountains along the western escarpment. … This indicates the month when the summer rain peaks not when the summer rain starts. Overgauw Wine Estate contributed 63 years’ rainfall data (1949-2012). - Coastal low - Berg winds Summer Weather Conditions: A. On the central plateau, which includes the Free State and Gauteng provinces, the altitude keeps the average temperatures below 20 °C (68 °F); Johannesburg, for example, lies at 1,753 metres (5,751 ft). Evidence shows that extreme weather events are becoming more prominent due to climate change. South Africa is a relatively dry country and is well known for its sunshine. The average annual rainfall for the whole of South Africa is about 464 mm. These convective rains develop because all these areas have enough heat in summer. The warm Agulhas Current runs south along the east coast and the cold Benguela Current flows north along the western shore. The orographic rains of the mountain areas are extremely important for irrigation in arid farming regions sometimes hundreds of kilometres away. 1a. This is illustrated by the yearly rainfall difference between Port Nolloth on the west coast, 50 mm and Richards Bay, 1 000 mm at the same latitude on the east coast. The former central business district is found on the south side of the prominent ridge called the Witwatersrand and the terrain falls to the north and south. Best time of the year to travel to South Africa depends on what you want to do. In this study, the objective was to estimate the precipitation intensities and their uncertainties (lower and upper limits) for durations of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 6 h and return periods of 2, 10, 25, 50 and 100 years in the Ghaap plateau, Northern Cape Province, South Africa using the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution. Polokwane, Limpopo, South Africa - Monthly weather averages including average high and low Temperature, Precipitation, Pressure, Wind Charts to assist you in planning your travel, holiday or an outdoor activity at Polokwane, South Africa The north and west of the city has undulating hills while the eastern parts are flatter. Most of South Africa is a summer rainfall area, November to March, while the Western Cape Province receives most of its rain during winter, May to August. The Cape of South Africa is a region of winter rains and other sectors further east along the coast tend to experience a bimodal rainfall distribution, similar to what occurs in equatorial regions. Johannesburg enjoys a dry, sunny climate, with the exception of occasional late afternoon downpours in the summer months of October to April. Rainfall Data for South Africa The initial daily and monthly rainfall datasets used in the study by Lynch (2004) were acquired fr om the erstwhile Computing Centre for Water Research (CCWR) early in 2000. Zaire/Congo air otherwise known as the South West Trade Winds. ... while DDF over coastal northern Angola and central South Africa is correlated with SSTs in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. Effect of interior plateau on South Africa’s weather: Summer: Geography Grade 12 www.learnxtra.co.za Brought to you by Page 6 In summer the Sub tropical High pressure belt (Kalahari high pressure) moves south with the Heat Equator. This location is classified as Cwb by Köppen and Geiger. South Africa is a relatively dry country, with an average annual rainfall of about 464 mm. At least 400 people have been displaced in Dodoma municipality after 70 houses were destroyed or damaged after heavy rain between 17 and 18 January 2016. Warm season weather is influenced by the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The climate of South Africa is determined by South Africa's situation between 22°S and 35°S, in the Southern Hemisphere's subtropical zone, and its location between two oceans, Atlantic and the Indian. The distribution of rainfall stations collected by Lynch (2004) for the rainfall database, including stations in nei ghbouring countries, is shown in Figure 2.2.1. Also, in the deep Keiskamma River Valley, the average rainfall at Dank den Goewerneury is only 390 mm, but it is 500 mm at Middledrift, nearby but outside the deep valley. This article investigated the reasons for changes in rainfall over the years. The exception is the Wester… The winds come from the Atlantic Ocean (west of Zimbabwe) towards Angola and Namibia and divert from Zambia to Zimbabwe. With an average annual rainfall of only 464mm (18.2 in), the Western Cape gets most of its rainfall in winter. Over most of South Africa, there is a definite rainfall pattern with rainfall increasing from west to east. Abstract Total rainfall over Natal, South Africa is the composite of rainfall from a number of synoptic rainfall‐producing systems. Summer rainfall areas are subdivided as having early, middle, late or very late summer rainfall. For most of the country, rain falls mainly in the summer months with brief afternoon thunderstorms. Anti-transpirant sprays may limit water losses by transpiration. The dam on Craigdoone farm, one of the contributors of rainfall data. Regular cold fronts pass over in winter bringing very cold southerly winds but usually clear skies. Since then a steady trickle of data has come in, with … AfriWX SA Weather (WX) Forecasts, Rainfall and Storm Reports for South Africa. Infrequent showers occur through the course of the winter months. South Africa is a sunny country, averaging 8–10 daily sunshine hours in most regions. This region is characterized by rainfall throughout the year, but it is heaviest in summer. The Indian and Atlantic oceans meet at the southwestern tip of South Africa. This makes the ocean important to South Africa and its citizens. South Africa Online (Pty) Ltd. SouthAfrica.co.za. [7] Temperatures in the city are usually fairly mild due to the city's high altitude, with the average maximum daytime temperature in January of 26 °C (78.8 °F), dropping to an average maximum of around 16 °C (60.8 °F) in June. In South Africa, south of KwaZulu-Natal, the winter rainfall is more pronounced, and the temperatures are a little lower than in the north. The weather is also influenced by the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. [4] In the winter months, snow collects on the high mountains of the Cape and the Drakensberg. The Western Cape province has a Mediterranean climate with warm to hot, dry, sunny summer weather and mild, rainy conditions in winter. Just like many other parts of the world, climate research showed that the real challenge in South Africa was more related to environmental issues more than developmental ones. Climate change has highly impacted South Africa, primarily due to increased temperatures and rainfall variability. In the western part of South Africa, the rainfall is low because there is not enough moisture in the atmosphere for convective rains. South Africa's coasts are major tourist attractions and trade locations. In Tanzania, flooding has been reported in 5 regions since mid January, 2016. Low rainfall and very high temperatures place water stress on growing summer crops. Change of rainfall distribution and circulation patterns over Southern Africa in summer. Ocean-Atmosphere Global Climate Model The South African Weather Service (SAWS) is currently recognised by the World … for the rest of South Africa. Further analysis indicates that a connection between the Botswana high and rainfall over southern Africa not only exists during ENSO years, but is also apparent during neutral years that display ENSO-like characteristics in the Botswana high. Runoff from the Drakensberg/Maluti Mountains of Lesotho and the Eastern Cape are fed via tunnels to irrigate the central and lower Orange River areas. South Africa Phokele Maponya* and Sylvester Mpandeli Department of Environmental Sciences, University of South Africa, Pretoria 0002, South Africa. The high rainfall in the mountains is due to orographic rains. A subtropical location, moderated by ocean on three sides of the country and the altitude of the interior plateau, account for the warm temperate conditions. the southern interior of South Africa, and indications o f decreases in rainfall in the far northern and north-eastern parts. 4 . The central Eastern Cape revealed an important special summer rain pattern; a small peak in spring and a fairly large peak in late summer/early autumn. Orographic rain is formed when moist winds are forced up the side of a mountain. South Africa has a warm temperate climate making it a popular spot for foreign visitors. It is typified by Johannesburg, at an elevation of 1,753 metres (5,751 ft). [14], Africa is currently and prospectively suffering from significant heat waves based on the nature of the continent amid the current environmental crisis. These may be expensive and have negative side effects, such as reducing photosynthesis. The map of average rainfall over Africa annually shows a similarity to the maps that show climatic regions. The exception is the Western Cape and its capital city Cape Town where the climate is Mediterranean and it rains more in the wintertime. [15] South Africa contributes considerable CO2 emissions, being the 14th largest emitter of CO2. The South African Weather Service will continue to monitor and provide updates on any future assessments that may provide more clarity on the current expectations for the coming seasons. Rainfall Distribution Map; Inundation Map. Agriculture, one of the main industries in South Africa, is highly exposed to climate change. With the satellite images of South Africa , you can see where the sun shines and where it is cloudy. South Africa’s highest rainfall occurs in the eastern and southern mountains such as the Drakensberg, from Limpopo, through Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal to the northern parts of the Eastern Cape. The arid regions are in the north-west, with the driest areas being the north-west coast. In-between there is a mid-summer drought. The Highveld is the eastern plateau area of South Africa. South Africa has typical weather for the Southern Hemisphere, with the coldest days in June–August. Be able to interpret synoptic charts of South Africa with special reference to air movements, interpretation of station models and the dominant pattern of High Pressures that affect the climate. Mpumalanga Climate (South Africa) >>Mpumalanga Weather by month // weather averages >>Mpumalanga Climate graph // Weather by Month >>Mpumalanga average temperature >>Mpumalanga Weather; Mpumalanga climate summary The Mpumalanga lies on 665m above sea level The climate in Mpumalanga is warm and temperate. As a result, there is at least a 6 °C difference in the annual temperatures of Durban (on the east) and Port Nolloth (on the west) despite being located at roughly the same latitude. The climate of Zambia in Central and Southern Africa is definitely tropical modified by altitude (elevation).In the Köppen climate classification, most of the country is classified as humid subtropical or tropical wet and dry, with small patches of semi-arid steppe climate in the south-west.. The high rainfall in KwaZulu-Natal and the north-eastern parts of the Eastern Cape is due to moisture-laden air brought in from the warm Mozambique current. Cold and warm coastal currents running north-west and north-east respectively account for the difference in climates between west and east coasts. [12] This is in large part due to its energy system relying heavily on coal and oil. Winter is the sunniest time of the year, with cool days and cold nights. Even in the … It’s a dry country, classified as semi-arid. There is also a very large difference between the wettest and driest winters. The summer rainfall region is the largest, being most of the country north of the coastal areas and the north west arid desert. Since then, flooding has been reported in Morogoro, Katavi, Mtwara and Dar es Salaam. With several other parts on the interior not receiving an adequate amount of rainfall and thus prone to droughts. In in the Western Cape rainsfall comes in the winter which is May to August and in most of the Eastern Cape, it is distributed evenly throughout the year. During winter it is warmest in the coastal regions, especially on the eastern Indian Ocean coast. Some regions experience no rainfall in the driest year and received hundreds of millimeters of rainfall in the wettest year. Skip to Article Content ... shoal distribution in relation to nearshore environmental conditions, 1997–2007, African Journal of Marine Science, 10.2989/1814232X.2010.501587, 32, 2, (293-307), (2010). Most of South Africa gets rain only in the summer. [12] Speedy environmental changes are resulting clear effects on the community and environmental level in different ways and aspects, starting with air quality, to temperature and weather patterns, reaching out to food security and disease burden. AfriWX.co.za is one of Southern Africa's busiest mobile weather web sites with well … It was revealed that the change in the rate of rotation in regard to the Earth's atmosphere can wag to the distribution of rainfall. The delineation of these districts was mainly done according to the annual march of maximum Figure 1a Rainfall districts for South Africa (SAWB, 1972) with provincial borders rainfall, and the boundaries between the winter, whole year and summer rainfall … [4] In addition to the above winds there are ocean currents in Southern Africa that affect bot weather and climate as well as human … In winter, there is much less rainfall than in summer. Most of the country has warm, sunny days and cool nights. In general South Africa received near-normal to below-normal rainfall during 2018. However, along the west coast of the Western Cape, as well as over the north-western parts of KwaZulu-Natal more than 125% of normal rainfall (reference period 1981—2010) was received. Rain falls from October to February and is often heavy, with the amount of precipitation increasing from west to east. The effect of ocean temperatures and currents has a maritime … Temperatures are influenced by variations in elevation, terrain, and ocean currents more than latitude. This is because air from the cold sea current do not hold most moisture and the coastal winds blow parallel to the mountains. In June 2012, an article was published in Landbouweekblad requesting farmers to submit their rainfall records to SAEON. Most of South Africa is a summer rainfall area, November to March, while the Western Cape Province receives most of its rain during winter, May to August. South Africa experiences a high degree of sunshine with rainfall about half of the global average, increasing from west to east, and with semi-desert regions in the north-west. ... Hans-Juergen Panitz, Ruth Cerezo-Mota, Spatial distribution of precipitation annual cycles over South Africa in 10 CORDEX regional climate model present-day simulations, Climate Dynamics, … The average yearly at Alice in the foothills of the Amatola Mountains is about 500 mm, but at Wolfridge in the mountains, the yearly rainfall is about 1 700 mm. The world average is about 860mm. = 787.929) during the period under review. As subtropical and polar regions of 2. Search for more papers by this author. The summer and winter rainfall region is the Eastern Cape. Unlike Africa's equatorial countries, where the year is split into rainy and dry seasons, South Africa does have four seasons—summer, fall, winter, and spring—only they are flipped from the seasons in the Northern Hemisphere.Summer lasts from December to February, and fall stretches about March … Rainfall Table; Water Level Table; Forecast & Warning . On 28 January, Mtwara (city) recorded 109.9mm of rain and Dar es Salaam 105.1mm and significant levels of rain co… Much of this is a recap from Grade 10. [13], The various effects of climate change on rural communities are expected to include: drought, depletion of water resources and biodiversity, soil erosion, decreased subsistence economies and cessation of cultural activities. While the Western Cape has a Mediterranean climate with winter rainfall, most of the country experiences summer rain. Credit: About South Africa (Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism) Rainfall distribution of South Africa Credit: About South Africa (Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism) The possible role played by DDF during JFM … Weather Bureau, Private Bag X097, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa. South Africa is a sunny country, averaging 8–10 daily sunshine hours in most regions. Weather South Africa, Satellite Weather South Africa, Weather Forecast, Rainfall, Clouds, Sun in South Africa. Winter temperatures may reach the freezing point at high altitude, but are at their most mild in coastal regions, particularly KwaZulu Natal Province and perhaps the Eastern Cape. A major reason for the low rainfall is that the moist air comes from a cold ocean, which results in low evaporation levels. The coast of South Africa and Mozambique receives some winter rainfall, particularly in the winter rainfall region of southwest South Africa. The humid subtropical marine climate is restricted to the southeast coast of Africa. J. J. Taljaard. The interior plateau, the eastern Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape and Mpumalanga Provinces receive almost all its rain as thunderstorms (convective rains). By and large the Witwatersrand marks the watershed between the Limpopo and Vaal Rivers. Public Document 6 WCS-CLS-CI-ACS-2018 Annual Climate Summary 2018 The average annual temperature is 18.7 °C | 65.6 °F in Louis … - Effect of interior plateau on South Africa’s weather - Winter rainfall over South Western Cape. Dry Period Bulletin; Extended Range (1-15 Days) Flow Forecast (Experimental ) Special Outlook; Map. Accepted 28 August, 2012 Drought in Limpopo province is having serious ecological and economic consequences and will pose an ... Rainfall distribution for the past 29 years was obtained from the South African Weather Services as seen in … A good example of orographic rains can be seen in the Eastern Cape around Alice. Overall, rainfall is greatest in the east and gradually decreases westward, with some semi-desert areas along the western edge of South Africa. Crossref. South Africa is famous for its sunshine – an average of 2,500 hours of sun every year. 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