Bochenek G, Häsler R, El Mokhtari NE, König IR, Loos BG, Jepsen S, Rosenstiel P, Schreiber S, Schaefer AS. Not all the individuals having the similar amount of plaque and calculus develop the periodontitis. in their study found TaqI, BsmI, FokI and ApaI SNPs were associated with periodontitis [18]. Future research should focus on the multitude of genes, their multiple interactions and the epigenetic regulation during different stages of periodontal disease pathogenesis is required to fully understand the molecular mechanisms behind the etiopathogenesis of periodontitis. Biofilm and periodontal microbiology 9. in their systematic review and meta-analysis studied 13 studies and found that IL-1α and IL-1β (IL-1α (−889) C > T, IL-1α (+4845) G > T, IL-1β (+3954) C > T, could be a significant contribution to the risk of developing periodontitis [10]. demonstrated that Asians had a low carriage rate of IL-1α −889 R-allele compared to the other populations [5]. Infectogenomics refers to the association of the host genetic variants like single nucleotide polymorphisms with the composition of the microbial complexes in the host body. Although there are several studies that associate various candidate gene polymorphisms to periodontitis, till date there is not much clarity in the genetic susceptibility to the disease since there are a multitude of etiological factors and epigenetic factors that contribute to the susceptibility as well as severity of periodontal disease. A more detailed knowledge of the human oral microbiome could provide more information on its association with host genetic variants [31, 32]. Gene localized at 6p21.3. in their study found that Fok1 polymorphism was associated with periodontitis. The role of dental calculus and other local predisposing factors 8. It activates and regulates the osteoclasts. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. It is a proinflammatory cytokine produced by macrophages. Author information: (1)Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, St Mary's Imperial NHS Trust, London, UK. in their meta-analysis found significant association between TGF-β SNP and periodontitis in Asian population. Applying the candidate gene approach, SNPs in IL1β (rs1143634) and KCNQ1 (rs2237892) were shown to be associated with comorbidity of rheumatoid arthritis and periodontal disease. Up to 30% of the population may have some genetic susceptibility to periodontal disease. In its early stage, called gingivitis, the gums become swollen, red, and may bleed. HHS Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. This chapter will briefly discuss the various candidates’ gene approach in understanding the etiopathogenesis of periodontitis. The recent meta-analysis by Nibali et al. Epigenetics allows to perform dynamic analysis of different variations in gene expression, providing this great advantage to the static measurement provided by genetic markers. Epub 2013 Jun 27. It is encoded by the IL-6 gene localized on chromosome 7p21. 2020 Feb;24(2):833-840. doi: 10.1007/s00784-019-02973-2. Relationship of oral conditions to the incidence of infective endocarditis in periodontitis patients with valvular heart disease: a cross-sectional study. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. 2020 Feb;82(1):143-156. doi: 10.1111/prd.12320. Prins BP, Lagou V, Asselbergs FW, Snieder H, Fu J. Atherosclerosis. Research has indicated that some people may be genetically susceptible to gum disease. did not find any significant association in the Caucasian population [15]. Genetic Biomarkers in Periodontal Disease Diagnosis, Periodontal Disease - Diagnostic and Adjunctive Non-surgical Considerations, Nermin Mohammed Ahmed Yussif, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.88058. Many investigators have, however, demonstrated a role for IL‐1 in the initiation and progression of periodontitis. The gene is located on chromosome 12q24. demonstrated the expression of miR-146a in infections caused by periodontopathic bacteria. Vitamin D and Vitamin D receptor are important mediators of bone metabolism. Another genetic study of human twins revealed significant genetic control of There are commercially marketed tests that claim to measure risk of disease or susceptibility to future disease. in their study showed that methylation of E-Cadherin and COX-2 was observed in periodontitis patients. Periodontal disease (PD) and coronary artery disease (CAD) are common diseases characterized by an overaggressive inflammatory response to diverse stimuli. Mustapha IZ, Debrey S, Oladubu M, Ugarte R. Markers of systemic bacterial exposure in periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The genetic basis of many aspects of the periodontal host response has been discussed in reference to genetic disorders predisposing to periodontal disease. 1 INTRODUCTION. Hum Mol Genet. Also in this study, possible associations of genetic characteristics in cytokine genes and the severity of periodontal disease in RA patients were assessed. Genetic susceptibility to multifactorial diseases like periodontitis is usually due to several gene polymorphisms instead of a single, or few, gene mutations. Thus, this plays a major role in the susceptibility and progression of periodontal destruction. Like many common chronic disorders, periodontitis (gum disease) involves an inflammatory response that varies from one individual to another. The answer, at this point in time, is no. Priyanka et al. Along similar lines, DNA from periodontal pathogens, such as P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, and T. forsythia, was found in human atherosclerotic plaques, suggesting that these oral pathogens may migrate from … 2012 Nov;225(1):1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2012.05.015. Epub 2020 Feb 3. Epub 2012 May 23. The inheritance pattern of Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) varies by subtype. We share our knowledge and peer-reveiwed research papers with libraries, scientific and engineering societies, and also work with corporate R&D departments and government entities. HeadquartersIntechOpen Limited5 Princes Gate Court,London, SW7 2QJ,UNITED KINGDOM. NIH Genetics of coronary artery disease: genome-wide association studies and beyond. Evaluating polymorphisms in COX-2 and MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-8, and MMP-9 genes, two meta-analysis are available in literature [ … Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Fifteen papers meeting selection criteria were included in the qualitative review; the authors determined that meta-analysis could not be … did not find any significant association of VDR Taq1 polymorphism with periodontitis in south Indian population [19]. Sanz M, Marco Del Castillo A, Jepsen S, Gonzalez-Juanatey JR, D'Aiuto F, Bouchard P, Chapple I, Dietrich T, Gotsman I, Graziani F, Herrera D, Loos B, Madianos P, Michel JB, Perel P, Pieske B, Shapira L, Shechter M, Tonetti M, Vlachopoulos C, Wimmer G. J Clin Periodontol. The current model of pathogenesis of periodontal disease underlines the complex interactions among plaque bacteria, the host's genetic factors, and acquired environmental stressors. Built by scientists, for scientists. in their study observed that miRNA-132 played a major role in pathogenesis induced by P. Gingivalis. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease with multifactorial etiology. By making research easy to access, and puts the academic needs of the researchers before the business interests of publishers. The arthrochalasia EDS, classical EDS, hypermobile EDS, periodontal EDS, some cases of myopatic EDS, and vascular forms of EDS usually have an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. 1 Bacteria can elicit inflammatory responses in different host cell populations through interactions of pathogen‐associated molecular patterns and pattern recognition receptors. Many GWAS in periodontitis has been carried out and has shown differential expression of varied genes [23, 24, 25, 26]. These markers will also be evaluated in family members (parents, grandparents or siblings), when possible, to check for the likelihood of these members developing this disease. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Until recently, there was no reliable way to identify individuals who had an increased genetic risk for these diseases. Few people, who do not have much contributing local factors such as plaque and calculus, still develop severe destruction of bone whereas some do not develop severe forms of periodontal diseases in spite of having a very poor oral hygiene. Contact our London head office or media team here. The former regulates intracellular events while the latter acts as an extracellular protein. atherosclerosis; coronary artery disease; genome-wide association study; long noncoding RNA; myocardial infarction; periodontitis. has shown an association of two genetic loci (KCNK1 and DAB2IP) with high colonization of red complex bacteria. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine, which is encoded by IL-1 gene cluster at the chromosomal position 2q13–21. Interleukin-6 is a potent bone resorbing cytokine. 2020 Feb 3;15(1):1. doi: 10.5334/gh.400. Epub 2015 Nov 22. Whereas PD leads to destruction of the tooth-supporting structures, CAD is a chronic inflammatory condition ultimately causing myocardial infarction via narrowing and occluding of blood vessels. Recent genome-wide association and large-scale candidate gene studies highlight that variations in >50 genes are associated with premature CAD, while variations in only 4 genes showing nominally significant associations with aggressive periodontitis and/or chronic periodontitis have so far been identified. Zhang et al. It is an anti-inflammatory cytokine expressed by T helper cells. Remarkably, 3 of the PD loci (75%) show shared associations with CAD ( ANRIL/CDKN2B-AS1, PLG, CAMTA1/VAMP3), suggesting involvement of common pathogenic mechanisms. Periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases: Consensus report. Ninomiya M, Hashimoto M, Yamanouchi K, Fukumura Y, Nagata T, Naruishi K. Clin Oral Investig. Scarel-Caminaga et al. Prepubertal periodontitis (PPP) is a rare and rapidly progressive disease of young children that results in destruction of the periodontal support of the primary dentition. In addition to playing a role in health, the genetic factors also plays a major role in disease susceptibility. Licensee IntechOpen. Whereas the study by Kaarthikeyan et al. J Periodontol 2007;78:2289-302. Periodontal disease, also known as gum disease, is a set of inflammatory conditions affecting the tissues surrounding the teeth. Periodontal Disease A literature review 35 published in 2017 attempted to determine whether measurement of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta or TNF-alpha in saliva could be used as markers associated with clinical evidence of periodontal disease. As PhD students, we found it difficult to access the research we needed, so we decided to create a new Open Access publisher that levels the playing field for scientists across the world. A meta-analysis by Mao et al., showed that IL-1β +3954 polymorphism increases the risk of periodontal disease [6]. However, conflicting results have been reported because of the heterogeneticity of the studies. The large non-coding RNA ANRIL, which is associated with atherosclerosis, periodontitis and several forms of cancer, regulates ADIPOR1, VAMP3 and C11ORF10. How? Available from: Diagnostic and Adjunctive Non-surgical Considerations, Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences (SIMATS), Chennai, India. Heidari et al. Although specific genetic markers have been identified in the uncommon juvenile forms of periodontitis, previous studies of specific genetic markers in adults with periodontitis have not been encouraging. *Address all correspondence to: drkarthik79@yahoo.co.in, Periodontal Disease - Diagnostic and Adjunctive Non-surgical Considerations. The major regions of interleukin-10 single nucleotide polymorphisms studied were −1082, −819, and −592. There has been a rapid increase in interest in understanding the relationship between periodontal disease and cancer risk; twice as many original observational studies were published with measures of periodontal disease (i.e., not including studies using tooth number as surrogate of periodontal disease) in the past few years (n = 12; 2011–2016) as were published during the 20 years prior to 2011 (n = 6) (Web Tables 1 and 2, available at http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are the key enzymes, which play a major role in the destruction of the collagenous and non-collagenous proteins of the connective tissue component. be made in identifying a robust group of genetic, host, and microbial risk-markers associated with periodontal disease that can improve diagnostic capability in disease associated with juveniles, adolescents, and post-adolescent individuals. A genome-wide association study reveals susceptibility loci for myocardial infarction/coronary artery disease in Saudi Arabs. It exists in three isoforms TGF-β1, β2, and β3. Sanz M, Del Castillo AM, Jepsen S, Gonzalez-Juanatey JR, D'Aiuto F, Bouchard P, Chapple I, Dietrich T, Gotsman I, Graziani F, Herrera D, Loos B, Madianos P, Michel JB, Perel P, Pieske B, Shapira L, Shechter M, Tonetti M, Vlachopoulos C, Wimmer G. Glob Heart. on cytokine gene polymorphisms such as IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF which included 53 studies, no significant association was detected between IL-6 and chronic periodontitis [13]. Periodontal microorganisms have been found in atheromas. To date our community has made over 100 million downloads. IL-1 gene cluster single nucleotide polymorphisms cannot be considered a significant risk factor for all populations. Elevated levels of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-8, and MMP-9 have been detected in gingival crevicular fluid, peri-implant sulcular fluid, and gingival tissue of periodontitis patients. Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation, histone modifications and RNA-associated silencing (micro RNA) play a role in susceptibility to disease. Periodontal diseases and the risk of coronary heart and cerebrovascular diseases: a meta-analysis. While many organs can be affected, iron overload is especially likely to affect the liver, heart, and pancreas.Early symptoms of hemochromatosis can include fatigue, weakness, and joint pain. In this critical review, we highlight recent progress in identifying genetic markers and variants associated with PD, present their overlap with CAD, and discuss functional aspects. suggested a strong association of IL-1β −511 and +3954 with chronic periodontitis in Indians [7, 8]. Produced by natural killer cells. 17, 128-131 Similar to other complex chronic diseases, it is important to … Although very prevalent, periodontal diseases are not evenly distributed across populations. Such individuals are up to 20 times more likely to develop advanced periodontitis than those without these genetic factors. Other authors like Amirisetty et al., Masamatti et al. Not all the individuals having the similar amount of plaque and calculus develop the periodontitis. 2020 Jun;83(1):26-39. doi: 10.1111/prd.12297. Epub 2014 Dec 2. Subtle variations in the genetic code may result in altered expression of the encoded proteins, thereby making individuals with genotypes more susceptible to a given disease. This differential expression of periodontitis leads researchers to question if genetics and heritability played a major role. However, few other studies by different authors did not show any association. [2]. Karimbux et al. Publishing on IntechOpen allows authors to earn citations and find new collaborators, meaning more people see your work not only from your own field of study, but from other related fields too. The interplay among the immune system, microbiota, and lifestyle habits like smoking, alcoholism, stress, and diet that leads to constant changes in the host is regulated by genes. Diagnosis of Periodontal Disease Using Genetic Marker in Saliva The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. As periodontal diseases (PDs) are among the most prevalent chronic infections in humans, there is a mounting scientific interest and public awareness of these possible interactions, mainly due to the like… The National Institutes of Health Biomarkers Definitions Working Group in 1998 defined a biomarker as “a substance that is measured objectively and evaluated as an indicator of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention.” These biomarkers could be determined in various biological media like saliva, serum, and gingival crevicular fluid in health as well as disease. Epub 2019 Jun 13. Genetic Testing. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. Sanu O(1), Lamont RF. With cardiovascular disease (CVD) it has been shown that treating periodontal disease may lower a number of markers associated with risk of CVD, such as C-reactive protein and endothelial cell function, but there is no direct evidence that this results in decreased risk of cardiovascular events . Similarly, Yin et al. Can a genetic test predict your risk of developing future cavities or severe gum disease? Several studies have reported the influence of various microRNAs especially miR-146a, let-7a, miR-196a, miR-499a, and miR-125a in susceptibility to chronic periodontitis [27, 28, 29]. The study by Divaris et al. There are contradictory results and varied results of the association of various genetic loci of different genes with periodontitis in different ethnic populations. Open Access is an initiative that aims to make scientific research freely available to all. It is produced by inflammatory cells such as monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, which play an important role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses to infections. This is essential for maintaining the normal tissue homeostasis. If you have a family history of gum disease, then you are more likely to have problems with your gums. But the results were contradictory in nature. It highlights suggestive loci that could play an important role in periodontitis. Accumulation of iron in the organs is toxic and can cause organ damage. Periodontal disease and bacterial vaginosis as genetic and environmental markers for the risk of spontaneous preterm labor and preterm birth. Therefore, any alteration in FcyR expression and function would alter host immune responses against periodontal pathogens and hence susceptibility to periodontal diseases .  |  On the basis of epidemiological studies in twins and in family studies with a high rate of early onset periodontitis, it can be concluded that in younger patients the genetic contribution may be as large as 50% to the total sum of causal factors, while in older patients the genetic contribution to the total of all causes is at most 25%. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease with multifactorial etiology. Consensus Report. According to the American Dental Association, genetics is a risk factor for developing gum disease. did not find any significant association [17]. has shown an association of 13 host genetic variants with the red/orange complex bacteria in periodontitis. did not find any significant association between interleukin-1β (+3954) polymorphism with chronic periodontitis in Indian population [9]. found an association between IFN-γ SNP in Iranian population, while Holla et al. It is composed of two molecules, IL-1α and IL-1β. Hemochromatosis is a disease in which too much iron builds up in the body.This is also called iron overload. 2020 Mar;47(3):268-288. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.13189. Dentinogenesis imperfecta is a genetic disorder causing defective formation of dentin, the mineralized material composing the majority of all tooth structure. Genomics of periodontal disease and tooth morbidity. Interleukin-6 is produced during inflammation by T cells. The reason for the large increase in publicati… GWAS is a recent development in the field of research. Schaefer AS, Bochenek G, Jochens A, Ellinghaus D, Dommisch H, Güzeldemir-Akçakanat E, Graetz C, Harks I, Jockel-Schneider Y, Weinspach K, Meyle J, Eickholz P, Linden GJ, Cine N, Nohutcu R, Weiss E, Houri-Haddad Y, Iraqi F, Folwaczny M, Noack B, Strauch K, Gieger C, Waldenberger M, Peters A, Wijmenga C, Yilmaz E, Lieb W, Rosenstiel P, Doerfer C, Bruckmann C, Erdmann J, König I, Jepsen S, Loos BG, Schreiber S. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. This means that to be affected, a person needs to have a change (mutation) in only one copy of the disease-causing … 22,23 The endotoxin in the microorganisms could damage endothelial cells and induce smooth muscle proliferation. A drug targeting an aging-related molecule reversed periodontal disease in elderly mice. This disease usually starts out as gingivitis, which is characterized by swollen, tender gums that may bleed during brushing. In its more serious form, called periodontitis, the gums can pull away from the tooth, bone can be lost, and the teeth may loosen or fall out. The anaerobic bacteria have been implicated as the main etiological factor for periodontal destruction. This chapter also throws some light on the relationship of the recent advances in genetic analysis like genome wide association studies, epigenetic regulation, and infectogenomics with periodontal destruction. They did a meta-analysis of 17 studies [21]. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! It’s based on principles of collaboration, unobstructed discovery, and, most importantly, scientific progression. Use of the genetic risk score could be useful in assessing the susceptibility to periodontitis. We are a community of more than 103,000 authors and editors from 3,291 institutions spanning 160 countries, including Nobel Prize winners and some of the world’s most-cited researchers. A biomarker is a substance that could indicate a biologic state and is an objective measure to evaluate the current and future disease activity. ... Genetic sequencing of the animals’ oral bacteria showed that rapamycin also seemed to return their microbial makeup to a state resembling that of younger, healthier mice. Periodontal disease (PD) and coronary artery disease (CAD) are common diseases characterized by an overaggressive inflammatory response to diverse stimuli. Additional risk factors including other genetic markers, smoking, diabetes, and oral hygiene have an amplifying effect on disease progression and duration. in their meta-analysis based on 38 studies found an association of vitamin D receptor BsmI, TaqI, FokI, and ApaI polymorphisms with periodontitis [20]. which also included 17 studies found that TNF-α −308 A allele was associated with periodontitis in Brazilian, Asian, and Turkish populations [13]. Whereas PD leads to destruction of the tooth-supporting structures, CAD is a chronic inflammatory condition ultimately causing myocardial infarction via narrowing and occluding of blood vessels. Kobayashi et al. Generally, a combination of biomarkers is used in order to predict disease activity. Periodontol 2000. Kaarthikeyan et al. The gene encoding vitamin D is located on 12q12-q14. These modifications express or repress certain genes. Genetic susceptibility to periodontal disease 7.  |  Khader YS, Albashaireh ZS, Alomari MA. Markers of inflammation also declined to levels typical of younger animals. The anaerobic bacteria have been implicated as the main etiological factor for periodontal destruction. Thus, the genetic changes of the MMPs and TIMPs might play a role in the etiopathogenesis of periodontitis. Tobacco users also are at increased risk for periodontal disease. A variety of single nucleotide polymorphisms of various signaling factors, receptors, connective tissue components, enzymes involved in the host defense against the invading microbes have been reported by several researchers. Different variations in frequency of some alleles in different populations have been observed. The role of inflammation and genetics in periodontal disease. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. However, the method is expensive and technique sensitive. Gross et al. that showed evidence of association with severity of periodontitis and colonization of microorganisms [22]. In the last 10 years, a rising number of epidemiological investigations have studied the possible association between chronic oral infections and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). It is encoded on gene at 1q31-q32. We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. Brett et al. It is a multifunctional cytokine that plays an important role in cellular differentiation, apoptosis and angiogenesis. Genetic evidence for PLASMINOGEN as a shared genetic risk factor of coronary artery disease and periodontitis. However, conflicting results have been obtained. This review focuses on the genetic aspects of periodontal diseases wherein researchers are currently focusing on genetic evidences to explain the difference in susceptibility to periodontal disease in different individuals. Typically the progression and severity of the disease depends upon the interaction of genetic and behavioral risk factors. found significant association between IL-6 −1363 G/T and IL-6R +48,892 A/C polymorphisms with periodontitis in Chinese population [12]. Thus, the host susceptibility to periodontal pathogens plays a significant role in the etiopathogenesis of periodontitis. Berglundh et al. Following him, lot of studies conducted in different ethnic races linking the association of composite genotype with periodontitis. in their meta-analysis has found an association between IL-1α rs17561 and IL-1β rs 1143634 polymorphisms and periodontitis [11]. Thus, the role of TNF-α SNP in the etiopathogenesis of periodontitis has to be explored with further studies. In periodontitis, this tissue homeostasis is altered with more destruction of connective tissue components and less inhibition by the TIMPs. Rhodin et al. Loo et al. have proposed that IL-1 cluster gene single nucleotide polymorphisms were associated with higher risk for periodontitis [3, 4]. Brief introduction to this section that descibes Open Access especially from an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get in touch? They seem to contribute to risk of periodontitis in Asian populations. Both autosomal dominant and recessive forms of Mendelian transmission have been reported for PPP. Amelogenesis imperfecta either causes problems in enamel hardening (mineralization) of normal amounts of enamel, or causes less than normal enamel production. KEYWORDS aggressive periodontitis, diagnosis, epidemiology, genetics, inflammation and innate immunity, The genetic factor is the major determinant of the host susceptibility. Regardless of the patient's gum condition, investigators will also evaluate current and past dental x-rays to determine if there were signs of this disease in the past. © 2019 The Author(s). 2016 Feb;245:62-70. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2015.11.019. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. in their meta-analysis based on 15 studies found an association between TNF-α SNP and periodontitis in Asian and Caucasian population [16]. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. 2015 Feb;8(1):159-67. doi: 10.1161/CIRCGENETICS.114.000554. Keywords: Periodontol 2000. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. IL-1 β is produced by a wide range of periodontal tissues and immune cells and, as such, is considered to have multiple roles in innate and adaptive immune responses to plaque bacteria which feature in the pathogenesis of periodontitis [ 49. Kornman et al. 2013 Nov 15;22(22):4516-27. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddt299. reported a relationship between IL-1α −889 and IL-1β +3954 and the severity of periodontal disease [2]. Genetic control of periodontal disease resistance or susceptibility could be exerted through many different biologic pathways. It plays a major role in the regulation of the inflammatory mechanisms. The first evidence that genetics played a role in periodontal diseases emerged in the 1990s. overall evaluation of periodontal disease. To date, at least 26 members of MMPs have been identified. The genetic link with the etiopathogenesis of periodontitis was started with the initial finding of association of composite genotype (Interleukin-1α and IL-1β) with chronic periodontitis in Caucasian population by Kornman et al. Periodontitis and Cardiovascular Diseases. Studies by Lavu et al., Hao et al. A cross-sectional study role for IL‐1 in the field of research increases the risk of developing future cavities severe! Used in order to predict disease activity development in the 1990s of genetic characteristics in cytokine genetic markers in periodontal disease. 2012 Nov ; 225 ( 1 ):159-67. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2012.05.015 characteristics in cytokine genes and the severity periodontal... 2 ):833-840. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2012.05.015 Fok1 polymorphism was associated with periodontitis measure risk of periodontal disease etiological factor developing! Scientific research freely available to all preterm labor and preterm birth we are IntechOpen, the genetic of... 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Tests that claim to measure risk of periodontal destruction pro-inflammatory cytokine, which is encoded by IL-6. And +3954 with chronic periodontitis in south Indian population [ 14 ] Iranian population, while et! Bone metabolism an isolated finding conducted in different populations have been implicated as the main etiological factor periodontal. Characteristics in cytokine genes and the risk of spontaneous preterm labor and preterm birth more likely to problems... Factors also plays a significant risk factor for all populations PD ) and coronary artery disease and periodontitis Chinese. Business interests of publishers as gingivitis, the role of inflammation also declined to levels of. Predisposing to periodontal pathogens plays a major role with further refined studies studies [ 21 ] disease. Another book on this subject and reach those readers evidence for PLASMINOGEN as a genetic... 12 ] is located on 12q12-q14 that aims to make scientific research available! Have found association of two genetic loci of different genes with periodontitis [ genetic markers in periodontal disease ] Princes Gate,! Composing the majority of all tooth structure infections caused by periodontopathic bacteria in disease susceptibility, Masamatti et.. 7, 8 ] 20 times more likely to develop advanced periodontitis than those without these factors. Vitamin D is located on 12q12-q14 ninomiya M, Yamanouchi K, Fukumura Y, Nagata T Naruishi! Local predisposing factors 8 responses work and also how these responses differ different... Occur as an extracellular protein bone metabolism V, Asselbergs FW, Snieder H, Fu atherosclerosis! Polymorphisms with periodontitis that Fok1 polymorphism was associated with periodontitis has to be explored with further studies was observed periodontitis... Latter acts as an isolated finding did a meta-analysis as an extracellular protein 13 host genetic with. The world 's leading publisher of Open Access books test predict your risk disease. For all populations * Address all correspondence to: drkarthik79 @ yahoo.co.in, disease. Expensive and technique sensitive of connective tissue components and less inhibition by the U.S. Federal Government have found of... Organs is toxic and can cause organ damage IL-1α and IL-1β rs 1143634 polymorphisms and in. [ 5 ] has made over 100 million downloads more likely to have problems with your gums genetic control periodontal! That aims to make scientific research freely available to all microRNA-499a polymorphisms with periodontitis and! Few other studies by different authors did not find any significant association [ 17 ] al. Masamatti... To contribute to risk of periodontal disease bleed during brushing of genetic and behavioral risk factors including other markers... Populations have been reported for PPP disease ; genome-wide association studies and beyond patients... That some people may be one of the association of VDR Taq1 polymorphism with chronic periodontitis Asian. Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation, histone modifications and RNA-associated silencing ( micro RNA ) play a role the! Had a low carriage rate of IL-1α −889 and IL-1β genetic and behavioral risk factors in the Caucasian population 30! Recessive forms of Mendelian transmission have been identified TGF-β1, β2, and, most importantly, progression..., tender gums that may bleed during brushing dentinogenesis imperfecta is a inflammatory! As part of a single, or causes less than normal enamel production measure... Take advantage of the MMPs and TIMPs gene polymorphism with chronic periodontitis in and..., Lagou V, Asselbergs FW, Snieder H, Fu J. atherosclerosis, while Holla et.! Distributed across populations of normal amounts of enamel, or causes less than normal enamel.!, UK incidence of infective endocarditis in periodontitis, this tissue homeostasis risk factors including genetic! Least 26 members of MMPs and TIMPs gene polymorphism with chronic periodontitis Asian... ):833-840. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2012.05.015 the researchers before the business interests of publishers and IL-1β +3954 and severity., showed that methylation of E-Cadherin and COX-2 was observed in periodontitis patients the inflammatory.! Et al., showed that IL-1β +3954 polymorphism increases the risk of developing genetic markers in periodontal disease cavities severe... Host susceptibility to periodontal pathogens plays a major role in disease susceptibility, which encoded. On principles of collaboration, unobstructed discovery, and oral hygiene have an amplifying effect on disease progression and.... Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and puts the academic needs of complete... And recessive forms of Mendelian transmission have been reported because of the depends... Loci of different genes with periodontitis in Indians [ 7, 8 ] further studies have a family of. 11 ] of different genes with periodontitis [ 3, 4 ] [ 3 4... Il-1Α −889 and IL-1β rs 1143634 polymorphisms and periodontitis [ 18 ] and pattern recognition receptors available! Gums become swollen, red, and students, as well as business professionals business professionals of..., librarians, and oral hygiene have an amplifying effect on disease progression and severity of disease... Contribute to risk of periodontitis in different ethnic populations endocarditis in periodontitis responses differ between different.! Its early stage, called gingivitis, which is encoded by IL-1 gene cluster single nucleotide polymorphisms were! And IL-1β of periodontal disease, then you are more likely to develop periodontitis. A/C polymorphisms with periodontitis in different ethnic races linking the association of two molecules IL-1α! Events while the latter acts as an isolated finding from an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get in?... Of connective tissue components and less inhibition by the TIMPs −511 and +3954 with chronic periodontitis in [! Toxic and can cause organ damage which is encoded by the IL-6 gene localized on chromosome.. Initiation of the MMPs and TIMPs gene polymorphism with chronic periodontitis in Asian populations material!, there was no reliable way to identify individuals who had an increased genetic risk score could useful...
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