[20] As a consequence, some of them moved to the left as they intersected and influenced a new generation of young liberal idealists like Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, who eventually would become truly dangerous radicals. Marx, Karl, -- 1818-1883; Buddhism -- Doctrines. Karl Marx was a German philosopher who attempted to examine religion from an objective, scientific perspective. Although some of those who reach this state do experience a sense of ‘bliss’ (as Marx suggests), this is only temporary and not the objective of the Buddha’s method (which is premised upon the personal realisation and appreciation of the changeable nature of matter). The below points are quoted from Buddha or Karl Marx. Of course, this does not mean that Karl Marx would have advocated the Buddhist path as an efficient (or even a relevant) path to free the Western proletariat, mired as it is in the Judeo-Christian tradition. • Of course, it is not in the interest of capital that people should understand how the system works. These are the principles that the historical Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, enunciated in his very first talk after enlightenment. For they would then do things that would damage profit (by requiring better working conditions and wages, greater health and safety conditions, etc). As I noted at the start, Buddhism has always laid stress on personal practice; Marxism has always laid stress on social (economic) practice. It creates dissatisfaction with what a person already has, and a never-ending series of desires to have other things. 4 To oppress: to keep someone in subjection and hardship, especially by the unjust exercise of authority. Given that Engels and Marx agreed on virtually everything, it is logical to assume that Engels’ positive appraisal of the Buddhist use of dialectics met with the general approval of Karl Marx himself, although it is clear that dialectics only reached their most advanced state of usage in the modern era of philosophical analysis (or the time within which Engels was writing). You are like that. We often do have the ability to eliminate, or at least lessen, some of the duḥkha of others, by changing their material circumstances. Buddhism adds to this, pointing out that how a person thinks of … Of course, many things conspire to cause duḥkha: the death of a loved one, war, disease, cars and stock markets crashing. Buddhism has always been strong on ethics and its rationale: its core principles go back to the very foundation of the subject. The Buddha certainly did not believe in any form of idealism, and even advocated an early form of evolutionary theory, which can be read in the Agganna Sutta. People are lead to believe that capitalism is natural, in their best interests, etc. People are not taught to see themselves as simple human beings, interacting with other simple human beings, who need to cooperate with each other so that all may flourish. A comparison between Karl Marx and Buddha may be regarded as a joke. Humanism. But understanding is not an end in itself. Buddhism and Marxism may seem unlikely bedfellows, since they come from such different times and places, and appear to address such different concerns. The aim of the first is the attainment of nirvāṇa; the aim of the second is political revolution. Let us see why. Karl Marx's religious views have been the subject of much interpretation.In the Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right, Marx famously stated: . The state, therefore, does not function in the interest of people, but of capital. The central metaphysical concept of this is ś $\bar u$nyat $\bar a$ (emptiness). Marx, of course, predicted the imminent demise of capitalism. Again, Buddhism claims that people are, in a certain sense, conceptual constructions. More of this in a moment. People can be truly human only in as much as they are part of a community. The Second Noble Truth is that duḥkha is caused by tṛṣna (pronounced trishna). The fundamental player in this dynamic is capital itself, which is essentially wealth in search of more wealth. 9 A referee of a previous draft of this paper asked a very pertinent question. 126–3.). 10‘On the Jewish Question’, in Karl Marx, Selected Writings, David McLellan (ed.) If you understand the situation, you can do something about it. Its ideology tells people that this is perfectly fine, and so legitimises selfishness. There are striking differences between, for example, Theravāda Buddhism, Tibetan Buddhism, Pure Land Buddhism, and Chan (Zen) Buddhism. Although not published until 1934, it is believed that the bulk of this book was written between 1872 and 1882 – when Karl Marx was still alive. Of course, the most important question is: how? (Note that ‘exploitation’ has a technical sense in Marxist economics. Free delivery on qualified orders. (The literature on this is enormous. Marx’s analysis and critique of religion "Religion is the opium of the Masses" ("Die Religion ist das Opium des Volkesis") is perhaps one of the most famous and most quoted by theist and atheist alike. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2nd ed., 2000), pp. Buddhism, as noted, is a philosophy of compassion; but the Buddha could have had no idea of the forces that capitalism can bring to bear to undercut this. "crossMark": true, Let us start with the Buddhist side. Neither in hair, nor in the head, not in the ears or eyes, neither found in mouth or nose, not in lips or brows. A majority of people are disempowered, relative to the few who have wealth. After this, in 1866, Marx wrote a letter to one Antoinette Philips (the centrepiece of this article), stating that he had been exercising his mind along Buddhist lines. A classic article on the Buddha and Marx was penned by the inspiring Indian political leader, jurist and writer B.R. both Buddhism and humanistic-Marxism is indeed a deep concern about human suffering” (Brien, 2004, p.37). Matters do not stop there, though. Second, it might be thought to follow from what I have said so far that to get rid of duḥkha all one has to do is change people's headspace, not their material conditions. Marx thought that religion was contagious on society. Authors and affiliations. 10 Many thanks go to Anna Malavisi, to the editors of this issue, and to two anonymous referees for their helpful and insightful comments on an earlier draft of this paper. First, Marx was, of course, a materialist and anti-Christian. In particular, Marx comes to see this in structural terms. Feature Flags: { "comments": true, (The matter is part of a much larger issue of the relationship between what Marx called the base and the superstructure—again, an issue much too large to go into here.) 5 ‘While in [various animal] births are differences, each having their own distinctive marks, among humanity such differences of species—no such marks are found. Karl Marx – The German Ideology) Buddhism, as a philosophical school, is the product of the prevailing socio-economic conditions of 6 th century BCE India, although the birth date of the Buddha is a matter of dispute and could be earlier. Arguably, one of the most important lessons that history has taught us is a simple one: power tends to corrupt. I don't need to say much of these eight points here, except the first: right view. • Capital acts in its own self-interest. This dispassionate practice is the Buddhist technique of developing non-attachment, or non-identification with one’s thoughts. As Marx said in the 11th of the Theses on Feuerbach: Philosophers have only interpreted the world in various ways; the point, however, is to change it. • Moreover, capital can allow its workers no say in the way a business is run. The second originated less than two hundred years ago, in a European and largely industrial society. Let us start with the most obvious thing. to an unrelated, self-sufficient, wantless absolutely full, blessed being. In particular, then, the identity of a person is constituted by their locus in a certain set of relations of these kinds. What is demonstrated is that Karl Marx: a) Knew about Buddhism.b) Understood the basic non-theistic teachings of Buddhism.c) Had reference to good quality Western academia about Buddhist philosophy.d) Appreciated the developmental ‘psychological’ nature of Buddhist mind-training.e) Marx understood that early Buddhism was not a form of idealism.d) Apparently did not include non-theistic Buddhism in his critique of the theistic Judeo-Christian religion. Those who come into the Buddhist religion should come with understanding; they should consciously accept that religion. Thus we have a social structure, that is, a set of relations, and the very rationale of those relations is to maximise capital. Again the Buddha could have had no idea of the perniciousness of the kind of self-conception engendered by capitalism. 8 What, I think, will bring about the demise of capitalism is the capital-driven environmental catastrophe that it is now looming. I'm an executive; I'm much better than him. For comparison, think of your car. They are subject to all the causal, biological and physical, laws involved in these things. The young Marx operates with a notion of human flourishing based on a certain understanding of human nature (“species being”). I just finished reading Buddha or Karl Marx By Dr. Ambedkar. It includes: suffering, pain, discontent, unsatisfactoriness, unhappiness, sorrow, affliction, anxiety, dissatisfaction, discomfort, anguish, stress, misery, and frustration. Would the two main streams constitute a schism? This is largely absent in Marx. Unfortunately, historically, the religion of Buddhism has been just as patriarchal as other world religions. Marx appears to going about his day at the seaside, exercising a self-discipline that involved the maintaining of the ‘non-arising’ of thoughts in his mind. They may be just as much deceived by the ideology of capitalism as anyone else. That is, it is constituted by a network of relations. Buddhism and Marxism may seem unlikely bedfellows, since they come from such different times and places, and appear to address such different concerns. In a capitalist ‘democratic’ structure, money means power. Marx wrote extensively on religion and philosophy, especially in his early years when these subjects were his major concern. However, first of all, it clearly has a biological component. "hasAccess": "1", false T/F: In modern societies characterized by organic solidarity, consensus on beliefs and values is no longer possible or essential. ), Matters take another twist when we move to later Buddhism, and especially to Madhyamaka (one of the two kinds of Indian Mahāyāna). There is then a brief discussion of the Buddhist and Marxist views of “the self”, since the nature of this is relevant to a number of points of the discussion. Since they have no say in this aspect of their life, they become alienated from it. Finally, the ideology of capitalism takes society to be constituted by social atoms, individuals with independent rights and interests, who vie with others in the pursuit of these—though they may come together to form a state in order to keep their collective affairs ordered. So in the next section I shall give a very simple outline of the parts of Buddhism on which I wish to draw. The thing that caught my attention is the summary of Buddhist Tripiṭaka. It is not to choose either of them it is necessary to make a synthesis of Marxism and Buddhism. And the Buddha has said it 2000 years before Marx was born. One might start with Robinson [Reference Robinson1942] and Mandel [Reference Mandel and Fowkes1976].). All things will disappear sooner or later. Marxism says a lot about these in the present context. It should be eliminated just because it is bad. In the process, people are manipulated, used and abused, in order to make more profit. This is not so either. More info about Linked Data This omits an important part of the picture, however. Marx and Buddha are divided by 2381 years. What, then, “holds these parts together” as a single thing? We believe (even if this is self-deception) that things can go on for ever. In particular, what follows makes no mention of Buddhist views of rebirth, or—on the Marxist side of things—of the “dictatorship of the proletariat”. What species being is, is never clearly spelled out. Adrian Chan-Wyles PhD is a writer, translator, founder of the Sangha Kommune, and Spiritual Director of the Chan Buddhism Institute. ... god Karl Marx Marx religion . Trevor Ling. This is largely absent from Buddhism. People have to eat, be clothed, housed—and so have to work—to live. } As well as the physical rest away from the city and his incessant intellectual activity, this letter seems to suggest that as part of his exercise and rest regimen, controlling the intensity of the function of his intellect was a key component. I have not tried to defend them.Footnote 7 That would require much more space than I have here. A system of humanity, compassion, tolerance, and cooperation; where wealth is used to provide the basic needs of health, education, etc, for all; where there is equality of class, race, and gender; where social decisions are not made by a minority of vested interests. Part of the answer is that concern for others is a very good way of quieting the self-centredness that plays such a large role in trṣṇa. Relatedly, contemporary social life requires the solution to many coordination problems, especially in the realm of economic production, distribution, and consumption. Karl Koppen (1808 - 1863) was a Young Hegelian in 1830’s Berlin, and was a very good friend of Karl Marx. Buddhism and Religion. The knock-on effect of the economic relations is therefore dysfunctional social relations. The essay was in draft form at the time of Ambedkar's death. Thus, in the Grundrisse we have (Nicolaus [Reference Nicolaus1973], p. 265): Society does not consist of individuals but expresses the sum of interrelations within which the individual stands. Advertising is a prime source of tṛṣna. Query parameters: { I am sure that there are probably other ways in which our two pictures complement and reinforce each other, but that will do for the present. This is false (an $\bar a$tman). Another thing that is important, as both Buddhism and Marxism stress, is that people fundamentally misunderstand the world in which they live. Buddhism theory is developed and aims at accepting life the way it is presented in the society and can be achieved through the application of the process and concept of the middle way. Following that, I will do the same for Marxism. But the two have at least this much in common: both say that life, as we find it, is unsatisfactory; both have a diagnosis of why this is; and both offer the hope of making it better. Marxism is, of course, well aware of this. Within the early Buddhist tradition, this would have involved concentrating the mind upon the inward, outward, and transitional modes of the breath, as well as keeping a dispassionate eye upon the thoughts and feelings that pass through the mind and body. Portraits of Marx and Lenin were posted in Gelao village’s Guanyin temple. A comparison between Karl Marx and Buddha may be regarded as a joke. and providing ‘Buddhist answers’. Neither in hands nor in the feet, not in fingers or the nails, neither in knees nor in the thighs, not in their “colour”, not in sound, here is no distinctive mark as in the many other sorts of birth. A prime mechanism for this is competition. Similarly, there are striking differences between the Marxisms of Lenin, Luxemburg, Althusser, and G. A. Cohen. History has taught us some important lessons, and so alerted us to many traps along our path. Conception, then, plays a central role. And in one of the sūtras where the Buddha does so, the V $\bar a$seṭṭha Sutta, he also rejects the importance of race and gender.Footnote 5 The Four Noble Truths make such distinctions of no moral significance. In his early writings, and especially in the Paris Manuscripts, Marx endorses a notion of species being (Gattungswesen). So let us turn to the relevant parts of Marxism. Let us start by seeing how Marxism fills out the Buddhist picture. Finally, Marxism famously notes that how people think is not a constant, since it can be changed by socio-economic practice. The Fourth Noble Truth is a set of guidelines for practices one can undertake to help reshape one's mental attitude in the appropriate way. But why, exactly, is that bad? Naturally, these negative consequences of capitalism impact those who own/manage capital less than those who are merely employed by it. Marx thought that religion was contagious on society. Such a practice ensures that one aspect of a persons’ abilities becomes highly developed, whilst the others atrophy. They are often referred to as the Four Noble Truths. Buddhism as a Religion. So let us turn to how the Buddhist picture may fill out the Marxist picture. Footnote 6. 46 70. Buddhism locates the cause of duḥkha in tṛṣna—desire, if you like. Marx and Buddha are divided by 2381 years. Now, Buddhism rejected class structure, in the form of the Indian caste system. Moreover, eliminating tṛṣna is not easy; it is deeply ingrained in us. What is required are political practices absent from traditional monastic Buddhist orders; and which also differ in many ways from those of traditional Marxists. It is not. (See, further, Priest [Reference Priest2014], chs. To do so, it uses the techniques of advertising (thought-manipulation) to create desires, most of which are entirely spurious. Bouddhisme -- Doctrines. Perhaps the closest we get to a systematic account of ethics is in Marx’ Paris Manuscripts of 1844. I certainly do not claim that Buddhism and Marxism are the same. I use it in the more familiar sense.) But for the Eastern proletariat, the apparent intersection between the ‘mind-body’ (nama-rupa) of early Buddhist thinking (preserved predominantly in the Pali Suttas of the Theravada School), and the historical and dialectical materialism of Marx and Engels, (coupled with the fact that Marx fully acknowledged that ‘thinking’ and ‘education’ were integral aspects of the revolutionary path), offers an interesting opportunity for the non-Western working class to easily transition from Buddhist philosophy to an appreciation of Marx and Engels. But the two have at least this much in common: both say that life, as we find it, is unsatisfactory; both have a diagnosis of why this is; and both offer the hope of making it better. Published online by Cambridge University Press:  The first thing here is to distinguish between a person and a self (as Buddhists use that word; note that the word ‘self’ in English often refers to the person—as in ‘he saw himself in the mirror’, ‘she was very self-centred’—not the self of ātman). (‘Noble’ in the sense of enobling. A person is complex of biological and psychological parts in a constant state of flux and change. 452 South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies We have had a number of illuminating conversations, and even given some joint presentations on the topic. "metrics": true, It is complex on the Buddhist side, since different schools of Buddhism hold somewhat different views on the matter; it is complex on the Marxist side since what Marx says—or at least, what he chooses to emphasize—changes throughout the corpus of his work. Of course, these two things are not inconsistent with each other. This includes people, giving rise to their dehumanisation. Neither in neck, nor shoulders found, not in belly or the back, neither in buttocks nor the breast, not in groin or sexual parts. All things are held to be empty of intrinsic nature (svabh $\bar a$va). So it makes sense to single out the thing that is: the attitude we bring to bear on the slings and arrows of (sometimes not so) outrageous fortune. BUDDHISM AND KARL MARX 3 hatred rather focus on total and embodied love for one another in the society (In Hier & In Greenberg, 2007). 1; 1. Please select Ok if you would like to proceed with this request anyway. So education is of central importance—not the sort of “education” that simply pushes some capitalist ideology, or the ideology of some other power structure; but education that allows us to see the world aright. Should one think of the overthrow of capitalism as (at least a partial) means of eliminating tṛṣna; or should we think of a reorientation of our attitudes as a means to undermine capitalist ideology? The economic system of the year 2000 is nothing like that of 1000; it would be naive to suppose that the economic system of 3000 (assuming that the human race manages to get there) will be anything like that of 2000.Footnote 8. In particular, people are taught to see everything as a commodity (commodification)—as something to be bought and sold. You don't have to be a Buddhist to see the sad effects of capitalism. For Buddhist thinking, the same is, in fact, true of all partite objects; but in the case of a person (as opposed to, e.g., a car), there is a self-conception. Before we pass on to Marxism, let me address a couple of possible misconceptions about Buddhism. See Struhl (Reference Struhl2017), where he outlines views which substantially overlap those presented here. Marx correctly rejected this picture. These lay out what we might think of as the human condition. Trevor Ling. Feature Flags last update: Sat Dec 12 2020 10:08:32 GMT+0000 (Coordinated Universal Time) … Close this message to accept cookies or find out how to manage your cookie settings. People are therefore made and kept deceived. Such poverty, naturally, leads to crime. I do not mean to suggest that everything in one of these forms of Buddhism should be added to everything in one of these forms of Marxism. The Buddha, I am sure, would have agreed.Footnote 10. Capital then no longer needs any particular person. Religious suffering is, at one and the same time, the expression of real suffering and a protest against real suffering. Marx and Engels combine suggestions that ethics is part of the superstructure, and so relative, with a moral condemnation of capitalism whose tone is anything but relative. If this method is properly practised, the discursive mind is brought into a state of ‘stillness’ and all movement in the mind ceases. Future articles in this series will appear in later issues. 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