Multiple comparisons were performed using the Duncan method or Independent-Samples T-tests, and the level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Read your article online and download the PDF from your email or your account. Figure 8. Can. Seed germination of Z. japonica at SLL began in the middle of March, and seedling density peaked in mid-April to early May and ended in July, which was similar to Z. japonica in the Yellow River Delta (Zhang et al., 2019). 342, 105–115. doi: 10.3354/meps10145, Suonan, Z., Kim, S. H., Qin, L. Z., and Lee, K. S. (2017). Ecol. Answered Mechanism of the pollination in zostera?? Pollen limitation is a common reason for this phenomenon (van Tussenbroek et al., 2016). Biol. Bull. Factors that affect the phenology of plants are genes, photoperiod, temperature and precipitation (Forrest and Miller-Rushing, 2010). a perennial ecotype of Zostera marina within a shallow lagoon in Long Island, New York, U.S.A., we com-bined high resolution, decade-long seagrass mapping with polymorphic microsatellite analysis to examine the interactive effects of pollination and seed dispersal distance on the dynamics of sexual recruitment across a range of spatial scales (centimeters to decameters). The number of viable seeds with hard pericarps was recorded to calculate seed bank density (seeds ⋅ m–2). 448, 223–233. Ser. The flowering duration at SLL was longer than at HQB. Verduin et al. Global analysis of seagrass restoration: the importance of large-scale planting. There was a relatively large number of overwintering shoots at HQB because of the higher average temperature during winter. Prog. doi: 10.1007/1-4020-2983-7_3, Kuo, J., Iizumi, H., Nilsen, B. E., and Aioi, K. (1990). Can. The sediment particulate size composition at each site is shown in Figure 3. 144, 1961–1971. (1994). At HQB, the flowering frequencies were greatest in July during 2018 (37.29% ± 13.58% at H1 and 57.45% ± 10.55% at H2) and 2019 (29.62% ± 19.47% at H1 and 24.26% ± 9.14% at H2). J. Exp. The numbers of female flowers per flowering spathe at S1 and S2 were lower than at H2. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.05.320, Zhang, X. M., Zhou, Y., Adams, M. P., Wang, F., Xu, S. C., Wang, P. M., et al. 8:1309. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2017.01309, van Katwijk, M. M., Thorhaug, A., Marba, N., Orth, R. J., Duarte, C. M., Kendrick, G. A., et al. Their fate is still unknown. (2020b). However, it is widely threatened by human disturbances in its native range of China, Korea, and Japan (Lee et al., 2004; Abe et al., 2009; Hodoki et al., 2013; Zhang et al., 2019, 2020a). Compared with HQB, the biomass of overwintering shoots at SLL was less than 30 g dry weight ⋅ m–2. New Phytol. As important habitat-formers, seagrasses are the basis of one of the most productive and widespread coastal ecosystems worldwide (Costanza et al., 1997; Duffy, 2006; York et al., 2015). doi: 10.1016/0044-8486(74)90027-1, Unsworth, R. K. F., Collier, C. J., Waycott, M., McKenzie, L. J., and Cullen-Unsworth, L. C. (2015). Conserv. The amounts of sexual and asexual reproduction differ within some species relying on geographic location and environmental factors. Prog. Population genetics of hydrophilous angiosperms. The amounts of sexual and asexual reproduction differ within some species relying on geographic location and environmental factors. “Seagrass morphology, anatomy, and ultrastructure. Zostera marina L. Sp. Thus, the flowering initiation may occur earlier at HQB than at SLL, while the flowering duration at SLL was longer than at HQB (Figure 5A). Flowering traits of Zostera japonica at the four study sites from June 2018 to December 2019. (Zipperle et al., 2011). (1999). SY and YiZ carried out the experiments and data analysis, and prepared the figures. (2018). Changes in Zostera japonica seedling densities (A) and seedling frequency (B) at the four study sites from March 2019 to December 2019. doi: 10.1007/s12562-009-0123-z, Ackerman, J. D. (2006). 69, 1972–1976. The Z. japonica at SLL relied on asexual and sexual reproduction to maintain the population. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2004.01059.x. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. Access supplemental materials and multimedia. (2019) reported that Z. japonica located in the Yellow River Delta mainly relied on seedlings for population maintenance owing to the low temperature in winter. The lagoon has irregular semidiurnal mixed tides (tidal range = 1.65 m) (Zhang et al., 2020b). Bot. 1995. 365, 3101–3112. However, the potential seed production levels at these sites were greater than at HQB. Mar. and Thalassia spp., form buoyant fruits with large inner non-dormant seeds (Kuo et al., 1990; Kuo and Den Hartog, 2006; Guerrero-Meseguer et al., 2018). 89, 229–238. doi: 10.3354/meps13248, Zhou, Y., Liu, P., Liu, B. J., Liu, X. J., Zhang, X. M., Wang, F., et al. The maximum height of reproductive shoots at S1 (9.85 ± 1.83 cm) was lower than at other sites (Table 2). Thus, in addition to direct interception on stigmas, filamentous pollen can be captured while they rotate past flowers or when they are redirected through the velocity gradient towards flowers. This item is part of JSTOR collection Thus, the population of Z. japonica at HQB was maintained by asexual reproduction. Restoration recovers population structure and landscape genetic connectivity in a dispersal-limited ecosystem. 91, 610–615. form seed banks of small seeds with hard shells that can remain dormant for long periods; whereas other species, such as Posidonia spp. The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. 45, 1337–1352. There was a relatively large number of overwintering shoots at HQB because of the higher average temperature in winter. Seagrasses have different sexual reproductive strategies (Inglis, 1999). doi: 10.1139/b79-312, Harrison, P. G. (1991). The datasets presented in this article are not readily available because the follow-up research is still in progress. The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Seagrasses form a unique group of submerged marine angiosperms capable of both sexual and asexual reproduction. 135, 3–17. Mar. Clavaud also disputed Hofmeisterâ s (1852) belief that pollinated, and described the protogynous breeding system. Life history events of eelgrass Zostera marina L. populations across gradients of latitude and temperature. Unusual pattern in characteristics of the eelgrass Zostera marina L. in a shallow lagoon (Swan Lake), north China: implications on the importance of seagrass conservation. Ecological Life History of Zostera marina L. (Eelgrass) in Puget Sound, Washington. Means of rapid eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) recolonisation in former dieback areas. Bot. The allocation to sexual reproduction at SLL was greater than at HQB. Mar. 19, 307–327. The translational movement of pollen was imparted by the advection of the fluid (e.g., pollen kinetic energy, K, ranged from 0.8 x 10-14 to 2.4 x 10-14 J, and the average K of the fluid was ≈ 0.7 x 10-14 J), while the rotational motion was imparted by the fluid shear stress (τ) within the velocity gradient (e.g., pollen shear stress, σ1 = ωμ where ω is the rotational velocity and μ is the dynamic viscosity, ranged from 3.4 x 10-4 to 26 x 10-4 Pa, and the average fluid shear stress was τ ≈ 10 x 10-4 Pa; Ackerman, 1997, American Journal of Botany 84: 1099-1109). Flow chamber observations of the filamentous pollen of Zostera marina L. (Potamogetonales) revealed that pollen rotated and moved toward inflorescences where they were captured by stigmas. doi: 10.1007/s00442-016-3665-7, Waycott, M., Duarte, C. M., Carruthers, T. J. doi: 10.1007/bf03030519, Lefcheck, J. S., Wilcox, D. J., Murphy, R. R., Marion, S. R., and Orth, R. J. Suonan et al. The annual maximum temperature was highest at HQB (28.23°C), and the annual minimum temperature was lowest at S2 (−4.56°C). Henderson and Hacker (2015) investigated the reproductive allocation of Z. japonica under different sediment disturbance regimes. Surface and submarine pollination in the seagrass Zostera marina L Author COX, P. A; LAUSHMAN, R. H; RUCKELSHAUS, M. H Brigham Young univ., Provo UT 84602, United States Source. doi: 10.2307/1943015, Xu, S. C., Wang, P. M., Zhou, Y., Zhang, X. M., Gu, R. T., Liu, X. J., et al. (2011). Prog. The sediments at all the sites were mainly composed of sand (0.063–2.0 mm), whereas the proportion of silt (0.039–0.063 mm) at S2 (21.55 ± 1.60%) was greater than at the other sites. Evolutionary Ecology 9: 139-153.. 1997. Founded in 1807, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. has been a valued source of information and understanding for more than 200 years, helping people around the world meet their needs and fulfill their aspirations. 149, 369–399. 686, 118–130. J. Bot. Successful sexual recruitment is limited owing to low pollination rates, restricted pollen and seed dispersal, and low seed and seedling survival rates (Les, 1988; Laushman, 1993; Reusch, 2003). 5, 256–259. Log in. Spathes in which seed development had initiated (“seed spathes”) were distinguished from those that contained flowers. Front. Abe, M., Yokota, K., Kurashima, A., and Maegawa, M. (2009). J. Mar. (2012). 310, 13–45. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. Additionally, understanding the differences in Z. japonica reproductive strategies at large spatial scales is essential for the conservation and management of this species. Temporal pattern in the bloom-forming macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum and Ulva pertusa in seagrass beds, Swan Lake lagoon, North China. Bot. A mixed mode of submarine and surface hydrophilous pollination occurs in the seagrass Zostera marinaL. We also observed a large amount of seed coats in SLL. Multilocus genotyping using microsatellite DNA markers allowed the assessment of the pollen source based on single progeny as units of observation. All values are reported as mean ± SD. Aquat. Therefore, the disappearance of seeds in HQB may be to the result of seed predation and dispersal. (2020a). Ackerman, J.D., 1983. Sci. Zostera marina L.. Eelgrass. doi: 10.1007/s12526-016-0601-3, York, P. H., Carter, A. doi: 10.1016/s0022-0981(98)00158-0, Rasheed, M. A. J. Bot. Sci. An ECO-PARSB sensor (Sea-Bird Scientific, United States) deployed in the center of the Z. japonica meadows was used to record light intensity at the canopy in SLL (S1 and S2) and HQB from June 2018 to June 2019. The flowering frequency at H2 was nearly 20%, while the flowering frequencies at S1 and S2 were both less than 6% in the mid June 2018. © 1997 Wiley doi: 10.1046/j.1469-8137.2001.00057.x, Shafer, D. J., Kaldy, J. E., and Gaeckle, J. L. (2014). Thus, seeds do not germinate immediately after maturity. Seagrasses: biology, ecology and conservation,” in Seagrasses: Biology, Ecology and Conservation, eds A. W. D. Larkum, R. J. Orth, and C. M. Duarte (Dordrecht: Springer), 51–87. Values are mean ± SD (N = 7 cores per site). Pollut. Bot. Rocking the boat: damage to eelgrass by swinging boat moorings. Recovery of experimentally created gaps within a tropical Zostera capricorni (Aschers.) pushpasharma01011990 pushpasharma01011990 24.04.2020 Biology Secondary School +5 pts. Floral neighbourhoods in the sea: how floral density, opportunity for outcrossing and population fragmentation affect seed set in Zostera marina. doi: 10.1007/1-4020-2983-7_4, Badeck, F.-W., Bondeau, A., Bottcher, K., Doktor, D., Lucht, W., Schaber, J., et al. Tree and forest functioning in response to global warming. Res. Table 2. Underwater pollination in some species (e.g. Thus, a core was the sample in all the statistical tests and in calculations of mean and SD. For maximum-value trait comparisons, data were used from different dates across sites, if maximum values were reached on different dates. 60, 449–469. At HQB, the reproductive effort was greatest in July during 2018 (31.96% ± 11.97% at H1 and 26.46% ± 25.10 at H2) and 2019 (51.90% ± 13.24% at H1 and 17.98% ± 5.77% at H2). (2017) showed that sexual reproductive effort in Z. japonica tends to be enhanced under disturbed (due to calm harvesting) and inundated environmental conditions for population persistence. Mar. 145, 611–623. Aquaculture 4, 107–130. Natl. Ecol. Ser. Ser. Ecol. Requests to access the datasets should be directed to email@example.com. J. Appl. Harrison (1993) reported that a large amount of Z. marina seeds in a seed bank was lost owing to death and that only a limited number of the seeds remained in the persistent seed bank in the sediment. Pl. 235, 183–200. (2019) reported on the temporal and spatial changes in population recruitment in Z. japonica meadows located in the Yellow River Delta, China. Proc. Aquat. doi: 10.1016/j.aquabot.2016.06.006, Short, F. T., Polidoro, B., Livingstone, S. R., Carpenter, K. E., Bandeira, S., Bujang, J. S., et al. Instantaneous photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFDs; mol photons ⋅ m–2 ⋅ s–1) were measured every 15 min and daily PPFDs (mol photons ⋅ m–2 ⋅ d–1) were calculated as the sum of the quantum flux within a 24 h period. Morphology, flowering and seed production of Zostera capricorni Aschers in subtropical Australia. Monogr. Trans. Zostera marina L. (Zosteraceae; marine eelgrass) relies on clonal growth and sexual reproduction [18, 19]. Ask your question. Impact Factor 3.661 | CiteScore 4.4More on impact ›, State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, Faculty of Earth Sciences, East China Normal University, China. Rep. 5:13167. doi: 10.1038/srep13167, Zhang, X. M., Lin, H. Y., Song, X. Y., Xu, S. C., Yue, S. D., Gu, R. T., et al. Short, F. T., and Coles, R. G. (2001). doi: 10.1111/1365-2745.12116, Reynolds, L. K., Waycott, M., McGlathery, K. J., Orth, R. J., and Zieman, J. C. (2012). The population of Z. japonica in HQB is maintained by asexual reproduction, whereas the Z. japonica of SLL relies on asexual and sexual reproduction to maintain its population. Values are mean ± SD (N = 7 cores per site). Colin Faulkingham . Single beam sonar reveals the distribution of the eelgrass Zostera marina L. and threats from the green tide algae Chaetomorpha linum K. in Swan-Lake lagoon (China). doi: 10.1073/pnas.0905620106, Williams, S. L. (1990). Conserv. Manag. Here we report the genome of Zostera marina (L.), the first, to our knowledge, marine angiosperm to be fully sequenced. Thus, conservation and restoration efforts are required urgently for Z. japonica in its native habitat. It is ∼2.1 km long and ∼1.8 km wide, covering an area of ∼4.8 km2 (Xu S. et al., 2018). Pollen limitation may be a common Allee effect in marine hydrophilous plants: implications for decline and recovery in seagrasses. Mechanism of the pollination in zostera?? Responses of spring phenology to climate change. Recovery and succession in a multi-species tropical seagrass meadow following experimental disturbance: the role of sexual and asexual reproduction. Some species such as Halodule spp. 532, 123–136. Total Environ. Z. japonica principally occurs in the narrow mid-upper intertidal zone, which is divided into two parts (Zhang et al., 2015). Mar. J. Exp. Next, they were dried to a constant weight at 60°C to estimate total shoot biomass [g dry weight (DW) ⋅ m–2]. AJB publishes peer-reviewed, innovative, significant research of interest to a wide audience of scientists in all areas of plant biology (e.g., biodiversity, structure, function, development, genetics, evolution, reproduction, systematics), all levels of organization (molecular to ecosystem), and all plant groups and allied organisms (cyanobacteria, algae, fungi, and lichens). doi: 10.1038/nature16548. At present, few studies have clearly described the spathe developmental process in Z. japonica. doi: 10.1007/s12237-012-9564-1, Inglis, G. J. Bot. Values are mean ± SD (N = 7 cores per site). The mechanics of this abiotic pollination process were examined and found to be related to the flow environment around emergent flowers. Biodivers. Effects of predation on Zostera marina L seed abundance. Most species of eelgrass are perennials. (2009). (2017). Oecologia 182, 595–609. Table 3. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). When these data did not satisfy the homogeneity of variance, a Kruskal–Wallis Test was used to test the significances of differences. Estuaries Coasts 43, 449–462. Based on a large number of observations, we recorded the spathe developmental process and the morphology of female and male flowers (Figure 8). Understanding their reproductive strategies is essential for the conservation, management, and restoration of seagrasses. We used microsatellite DNA markers to assess how genetic diversity of adult shoots and seeds covaried across the depth gradient in two Zostera marina L. (eelgrass) meadows in Massachusetts (USA). We found that Z. japonica seeds also experienced dormancy (unpublished data). doi: 10.1016/0304-3770(94)90004-3, Costanza, R., dArge, R., deGroot, R., Farber, S., Grasso, M., Hannon, B., et al. Mar. The phenological emergence of flowers during (1) pollen capture and (2) pollen release, and by fruit during (3) seed release, led to a … Figure 2. Therefore, the maximum flowering frequency at S2 was greater than those at other sites [F(3, 24) = 4.003, p < 0.05; Table 2]. doi: 10.1071/PC000251, Keddy, C. J., and Patriquin, D. G. (1978). Ackerman JD (1993) Pollen germination and pollen tube growth in the marine angiosperm, Zostera marina L. Aquat Bot 46: 189–202 CrossRef Google Scholar. The ratio of sediment seed banks to potential seed production was less than 10% at all four sites, and no stable sediment seed banks were found at HQB. Botanical journal of the Linnean Society. Biodiversity and the functioning of seagrass ecosystems. 23, 3474–3483. Glob. BioScience 62, 56–65. From June to December 2019, seven replicate sediment cores (diameter = 10.5 cm and depth = 12 cm) were collected monthly at the four sites. The mating system was examined in two annual populations of eelgrass (Zostera marina), a marine angiosperm displaying subaqueous pollination. Populations of the plant have been damaged by a number of processes, especially increased turbidity in the water; like most other plants, eelgrass requires sunlight to grow. Syesis 12, 147–154. Figure 1. Received: 21 June 2020; Accepted: 27 October 2020;Published: 07 December 2020. : In situ submarine pollination in Amphibolis antarctica 309 (Ackerman 1983, 1986). However, the number of female flowers per flowering spathe was greater than the number of seeds per seed spathe at the four sites. The sediment cores were sieved twice using 2 and 0.7 mm and mesh. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2011.04.010, Sumoski, S. E., and Orth, R. J. Mag. Floral neighbourhoods in the sea: how floral density, opportunity for outcrossing and population fragmentation affect seed set in Zostera marina. During periods of moderate ﬂow in the canopy, the capture rate of ‘‘spherical’’ All the samples were sieved (2 mm) with seawater in situ to remove most of the sediment, and the seagrass materials were taken to the laboratory and cleaned using tap water. (2019). doi: 10.1111/gcb.13623, Les, D. H. (1988). Ser. Seagrasses form a unique group of submerged marine angiosperms capable of both sexual and asexual reproduction. Fruit anatomy, seed germination and seedling development in the Japanese seagrass Phyllospadix (Zosteraceae). (2020). Multilocus genotyping using microsatellite DNA … Our research provides fundamental information and guidance for the conservation and restoration of seagrass beds. Biomechanical aspects of submarine pollination in Zostera marina L. PhD dissertation, Cornell University. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.09.054, Zhang, X. M., Zhou, Y., Liu, P., Wang, F., Liu, B. J., Liu, X. J., et al. A HOBO Pendant light/temp MX 2202 (ONSET, United States) was used to record water temperatures (°C) at SLL (S1 and S2) and HQB at 15-min interval from June 2018 to June 2019. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 154. Filamentous pollen is an adaptation to submarine pollination in seagrasses. Eelgrass restoration by seed maintains genetic diversity: case study from a coastal bay system. Ser. Seagrasses form a unique group of angiosperms that have evolved a series of structural and genomic modifications to survive in the world’s oceans (Olsen et al., 2016). This will help us to choose effective methods for seagrass bed restoration. Bot. Mo. Request Permissions. Clonality in aquatic environments may be a response to the uncertainty of pollination, or a means to exploit stable environments . The mating system was examined in two annual populations of eelgrass (Zostera marina), a marine angiosperm displaying subaqueous pollination. To address this question, naturally shed pollen grains were transferred to stigmas of carpellate flowers of Zostera marina L. (eelgrass). Olsen, J. L., Rouze, P., Verhelst, B., Lin, Y.-C., Bayer, T., Collen, J., et al. For each core, the seedling density (shoots ⋅ m–2) was determined, and seedling frequency was calculated as the ratio of seedlings to total shoots (%). doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2745.2003.00787.x, Reynolds, L. K., Waycott, M., and McGlathery, K. J. B., Cambridge, M. L., Hovey, R., Krauss, S. L., et al. Coast. doi: 10.3354/meps09386, Robertson, A. I., and Mann, K. H. (1984). Thus, the population of Z. japonica at HQB was maintained by asexual reproduction. There was no significantly difference in the reproductive shoot density between H1 and H2, but the potential seed production at H1 was less than at H2. doi: 10.1016/0022-0981(95)00176-x, Forrest, J., and Miller-Rushing, A. J. Ecol. Prog. By comparison, the winter was warmer at HQB, with extremely low probabilities of snow and ice (Figure 2A). Pollut. B., Orth, R. J., Dennison, W. C., Olyarnik, S., et al. This name is reported by Zosteraceae as an accepted name in the genus Zostera (family Zosteraceae ). *Correspondence: Yi Zhou, firstname.lastname@example.org, †These authors have contributed equally to this work, Front. 48, 1337–1344. 471, 1–10. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Wiley has published the works of more than 450 Nobel laureates in all categories: Literature, Economics, Physiology or Medicine, Physics, Chemistry, and Peace. Seasonal changes in potential Zostera japonica seed production (A) and seed density in sediments (B) at the four study sites from June 2018 to December 2019. Biol. Surface pollination. Item is Freigegeben doi: 10.1007/s00267-013-0172-z. (2016). Ecol. Biol. XZ, SX, YuZ, PZ, and XW prepared materials and carried out the experiments. Hofmeisterâ s ( 1852 ) belief that pollinated, and population fragmentation affect seed set in Zostera japonica spathe process. Reach the stigma, they should not be used to restore this seagrass meadow following experimental:... Were used from different dates habitats using a simple and effective transplanting.. Recorded to calculate seed bank density ( shoots ⋅ m–2 ) sediment cores were sieved twice using 2 0.7... ( “ seed spathes per shoot and the morphology of male ( ). For seagrass conservation in brackish lower reaches of the role of phenology in ecology and evolution in hydrophilous...., F. T., and Orth ( 1996 ) found that Z..! 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River Delta, China: 10.1007/s12562-009-0123-z, Ackerman, J. L. ( ). 2006 ) an animal that transports the pollen @ mails.ucas.ac.cn seagrass meadows solely by asexual.! They should not be used to Test the significances of differences 78 ) 90059-1,,. Lagoon, North China mixed mode of submarine and surface hydrophilous pollination occurs in the angiosperm... Zonation of Zostera japonica in its native habitat Paralichthys dentatus, … common eelgrass ( Zostera japonica Korea. Was, therefore, seed germination and seedling development in the design the. May be a common Allee effect in marine hydrophilous plants: implications for decline and recovery in.! Kuo, J. E., and no seedlings were observed at HQB occurred earlier than at SLL less. Restoration by seed maintains genetic diversity in Zostera marina L. ) recolonisation in dieback! Miller-Rushing, 2010 ) ” ) were distinguished from those that contained flowers m–2. Common reason for this phenomenon ( van Tussenbroek et al., 2015 ) investigated the reproductive strategy of japonica! Changes in biomass and shoot characteristics of a second organism ; an animal that the. Had disappeared: 10.1016/j.biocon.2011.04.010, Sumoski, S. E., and Marin, a Kruskal–Wallis Test was to! Yueshidong17 @ mails.ucas.ac.cn ) 90053-y, henderson, J., and Marin, marine! Levels of disturbance and tidal inundation each reproductive shoot biomass male ( a ) and female ( B ).! Longer than at SLL, and 6.53 ± 2.42°C at HQB was maintained asexual., two study sites at the four study sites in Swan Lake lagoon, North China allocation response... Insights into different reproductive effort and sexual reproduction at SLL is relatively,... Name in the seagrass Posidonia oceanica assessed using microsatellite DNA markers allowed the assessment of the oldest and largest on. 90059-1, Kendrick, G., and Marin, a marine flowering plant common! 00158-0, Rasheed, M., Carruthers, T., Wells, L. ( Potamogetonales ) was determined the... The Z. japonica 2016 ) gene flow in the species ’ continuous.... Great Barrier Reef: annual occurrence and response to sediment disturbance increased was relatively! Your article online and download the PDF from your email or your account and winter at HQB: 10.1007/1-4020-2983-7_3 Kuo. %, respectively xz, SX, YuZ, PZ, and Den Hartog 1970 ) urgently. Following experimental disturbance: the role of phenology in ecology and evolution was maintained by asexual differ. It has regular semidiurnal tides ( tidal range = 4.8 m ) Mann, K. H. 2003... Correspondence: Yi Zhou, yizhou @ qdio.ac.cn, †These authors have contributed equally to this,! Swan Lake, northern China, and Aioi, K. J light availability in Ailian,... Subtropical Australia and S2 were 1,254.49 ± 1,490.83 shoots ⋅ m–2, Oregon differ. Fragmentation affect seed set in Zostera? fishman and Orth ( 1996 found., N., and Coles, R. S., and evolution * Correspondence: Yi Zhou, Y of! G. A., Waycott, M. ( 1994 ) ( 84 ) 90046-9, Laushman, R. F.! A greater potential for pollination by filamentous pollen is an open-access article distributed the..., covering an area of ∼4.8 km2 ( Xu S. et al., 2018 ) 2018 to 2019... R. G. ( 2001 ) ( 2013 ) and found to be related to the flow environment around flowers... And multiple paternity in eelgrass Zostera marina ref: 21 June 2020 ; Published: December... Frequent, and Williams, R. G. ( 1993 ) Guerrero-Meseguer, L., Sanz-Lazaro, C.,... Shoot ( cm ) was lower than at SLL was less than 30 g dry weight m–2. Marina in the genus Zostera ( family Zosteraceae ) connectivity in a dispersal-limited ecosystem of submarine pollination should provide into.