southeastern Indiana, eastern Kentucky, eastern Tennessee, and western North Carolina (Petranka, They have a distinguishing pale-coloured line that runs from behind their eyes to the rear of the jaw, … 639-642, Organ, J.A., 1990, Salamander Survey Section One 1990, Prepared for the Mount Rogers National Recreation Area, Jefferson National Forest, 40 pgs., Dept. been shown to overlap or abut the ranges of several cryptic species, with which it has been The northern dusky salamander is a member of the lungless salamander family. 1987), territorial behavior is probably well developed, but no studies have specifically western North Carolina (Spight, 1967c); 21 in 17 Pennsylvania females (Hall, 1977); and 24–33 Predators - Uhler et al. two-lined Salamanders (Eurycea bislineata; Spight, 1967c; Stewart and Bellis, 1970; Holumuzki, Dusky Salamanders (Genus Desmognathus) Members of this genus can usually be distinguished by their brown color, large jaw muscles, proportionally larger hind legs, and a light line from the posterior corner of the eye to the angle of the jaw. Scientific Name: Desmognathus fuscus fuscus Size: 2.5-5 inches (6.5-13 cm) in length Status: Abundant . dusky Salamanders are largely restricted to hillside springs and small, rocky brooks in Lowest Conservation Concern. The Northern Dusky Salamander (Desmognathus fuscus) is a member of the family Plethodontidae (lungless salamanders). Appearance: Difficult to identify due to the highly variable coloration and pattern. Habitat: Occupy edges of rocky streams, hillside springs, and seepages, often in wooded or partially wooded areas. Size: 2 ½ – 4 inches. Note the light line extending from the eye to the jaw. Scientific Name: Desmognathus fuscus Size: 2.8 – 5.6” (adult length) Status: A recently identified inhabitant of Michigan; current status and distribution within the state unknown. Northern Dusky Salamander. Five to eight yellow dorsal spots bordered by a dark band are present on juveniles, and some remnants of these markings may or may not be present in adults. Territories - Aggressive behavior has been documented in Northern Dusky Salamanders (Organ, be caused by siltation and high metal concentrations (Gore, 1983). Dusky Salamanders often bite their predators (garter snakes) is triangular in cross-section. Salamanders in North Carolina, finding the following major groups in both larvae and adults: Seasonal Migrations - In Ohio between 23 November–21 December, Ashton (1975) reported that limestone country, but are sometimes found in river bottomlands in spring seepage areas and are Holumuzki (1980) reported the dietary overlap and synchronous foraging of northern Adult Habitat - In New York, Northern Dusky Salamanders are found along the margins of small In Adults are usually brownish with a light dorsal stripe that continues onto the first portion of the tail. At high Habitat: Found near or in streams, seepage areas, and springs. elevation sites in Virginia, males become sexually mature at 3.5 yr and females 1 yr later, m2) in 14 Northern Dusky Salamanders found along a creek in east-central Kentucky with a Another problem has been the repair damage should population losses occur (Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles that studies of their population health and assessment of their conservation status can be made. by adults on larvae was reported by Wilder (1913) and Hamilton (1943). Raccoons, Northern Dusky Salamander . Massachusetts (Wilder, 1913). D. Bruce Means 1. Salamanders (D. quadramaculatus) were reported as predators by Noble and Evans (1932). Thanks! Egg deposition sites - Eggs are attached to the undersides of rocks, logs, or other substrates Ohio (Wood and Fitzmaurice, 1948). (Jones, 1986). incubating clutches (Dennis, 1962). ochrophaeus; Noble and Evans, 1932; Organ, 1961a; Stewart and Bellis, 1970; Hall, 1977; Orr and Its larval stage is entirely aquatic and after becoming mature the salamander uses the sense of smell for predation and finding potential mates. Although studies are lacking, Conservation - Monetary values of $0.25/specimen were assessed for Northern Dusky Salamanders Historical versus Current Distribution. been no studies documenting declines. Barbour, R.W., J.W. Northern Dusky Salamander - Desmognathus fuscus. two weeks in July and the embryos hatch from early September to mid October (Wood and Enter Search Term(s): Search DEC Home » Animals, Plants, Aquatic Life » Amphibians & Reptiles » Herp Atlas Project » Species of Salamanders Found in New York » Northern Dusky Salamander … Dorsal coloration of adults is usually brown or tan with darker brown markings usually forming a stripe down the middle of the back. Bellis, 1972, Home range, homing and the homing mechinism of the salamander, Desmognathus fuscus, Copeia, Vol. during the fall and spring in Virginia (Organ, 1961a) and New York (Bishop, 1941b). Species Status: Endangered. ova in females from six populations from Maryland (Danstedt, 1975). The winter retreats were low boggy places under stones, logs, bark, and other debris on the ground (Bishop, 1941b). difficulty recognizing the southern limits of the Northern Dusky Salamanders' range, which has An adult Northern Dusky Salamander. Salamanders than listed above, but such associations rarely have been reported in the In other parts of their range, eggs have been found from 28 June–5 October in suggesting that brooding females do not actively forage. those of others (Bishop, 1941b; Baldauf, 1947; Wood and Clarke, 1955; Jones, 1986). 1969, pg. Torpor (Hibernation) - Ashton (1975), following the activity of five Salamanders during winter Difficult to identify due to the highly variable coloration and pattern. and molted skins and larvae of Northern Dusky Salamanders. A 10 gallon tank is a perfect size for any salamander. Co., Ithaca, N.Y, Conant, R., 1958, A field guide to reptiles and amphibians of the United States and Canada east of the 100th Meridian, 366 pgs., Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA, Conant, R., 1975, A field guide to reptiles and amphibians of Eastern and Central North America, 429 pgs., Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA, Juterbock, J.E., 1979, Nesting behavior in the dusky salamander, Desmognathus fuscus: Timing and significance of brooding and hatching events, Am. Historical versus Current Distribution - The geographic distribution of northern dusky Parasites - Rankin (1937) conducted an exhaustive study of the parasites of northern dusky In the stomachs of 18 adults, Wilder (1913) found the remains of caddisflies, larval and Salamander larvae are absent from many streams that drain coal strip mines (Gore, 1983). If you have a terrestrial or semi-aquatic salamander a small clam or oyster shell will make a great water dish. 11–14 mo old in Virginia (Organ, 1961a); and between 11 May–17 June when 8–10 mo old in 32, pg. The northern dusky salamander also is the more common of our three dusky salamanders. collembolans, plecopterans, thysanopterans, homopterans, trichopterans, and sphaeriid clams. 4, pg. Bull., Vol. are 24–26 mo old; mating and egg laying follows 1–2 mo later (Bishop, 1941b). Davic (1983) concluded that adult Northern Dusky Salamander females were smaller They have a distinguishing pale-coloured line that runs from behind their eyes to the rear of the jaw, and heavier set bodies with longer hind legs than front legs. dusky Salamanders with two other plethodontids and showed that Salamander surface activity was Over their Similar Species: Closely related to 2 other species, Northern Dusky Salamander and Santeetlah Dusky Salamander, best distinguished by their ranges. In Maryland, males mature at 2 yr, females at 3 (Danstedt, 1975). Salamanders (Desmognathus fuscus) extends in the United States southwest from Maine, through New Range territory size 1.4 to 114 m^2; Home Range. orthopterans, ephemeridans, odonates, hemipterans, lepidopterans, coleopterans, hymenopterans, It reaches an adult size of 3 to 5 inches (7.6 to 12.7 cm). Zool., Vol. White Mountains in New Hampshire, Burton (1976) reported many of the same groups plus mites, Organ, 1961a; Krzysik, 1979; Southerland, 1986e), Allegheny Mountain dusky Salamanders (D. Densities were calculated for populations at 0.8 m2 in Pennsylvania (Hall, Etymology: Genus: desmos is Greek for "ligament", gnathos is Greek for "jaw" - This refers to the bundle of ligaments holding the jaw.. Breeding habitat - Same as adult habitat. age at maturity for males is 3 yr (Hall, 1977). association (= locally sympatric or syntopic) with seal Salamanders (Desmognathus monticola; 1. Grey to brown body. stomachs of Indiana Northern Dusky Salamanders, Minton (1972, 2001) found beetles, lepidopteran 1989), red Salamanders (Pseudotriton ruber; Stewart and Bellis, 1970; Karlin and Pfingsten, 935, Orr, L.P., Maple, W.T., 1978, Competition avoidance mechanisms in salamander larvae of the genus Desmognathus, Copeia, Vol. and small rocks, and under logs about 15–90 cm from open water (Krzysik, 1979). 19, pg. Populations in eastern species (Barthalmus and Bellis, 1969, 1972; Barthalmus and Savidge, 1974; Hom, 1987; Juterbock, NPS Photo. Call toll-free in *Maryland* at 1-877-620-8DNR (8367). Further study needed. In older individuals the spots are gone and the wavy band may be 1978, pg. 1977), and between 0.4 and 1.4 animals/m2 in a North Carolina stream bed (Spight, 1967c). He concluded that at no (Hom, 1987). These lines fade as the salamanders age. Possible parasitism by Likens (1975b). June–24 September in Massachusetts (Wilder, 1913); July–September in southwestern Pennsylvania Salamanders from early June to late August (Wilder, 1913). (Dennis, 1962). Interspecific Associations/Exclusions - Northern dusky Salamanders have been reported in may be found under logs, rocks and other cover. Species Status: Common. auriculatus). Dusky salamanders share habitat with two other native species, the two-lined and spring salamanders. mature at approximately 2 yr and about 35 mm SVL; but females mature at 3 yr and about 40 mm SVL Brown, 1992; Petranka, (Krzysik, 1980a,b); and late June to mid August in Viriginia (Organ, 1961a). Dusky salamanders also may prey on other amphibian larvae. an annual cycle (Hom, 1987). May also be found in springs and seepage areas in woodlands. [3][14] Stream salamanders are known to be significant predators. Spotted dusky salamanders range from southern Illinois and western Kentucky south to the Gulf Coast. Description. The Northern Dusky Salamander is a grayish-brown salamander that is noticeably chunkier than the Northern Two-lined Salamander that they often share their habitat with. Salamanders (Gyrinophilus porphyriticus; Stewart and Bellis, 1970; Krzysik, 1979; Karlin and Altig & McDiarmid 2015 - Classification and Description: Larvae/Metamorphosis - Hatchlings were discovered between 17 June–1 September in Massachusetts Society, Handbook of Larval Amphibians of the United States and Canada. The Northern Dusky Salamander (Desmognathus fuscus; Rafinesque 1820) is a member of the family Plethodontidae, also referred to as lungless salamanders (Gray 1850). recognition. 22–34 in 44 nests in Pennsylvania (Pawling, 1939); and an average of 26 eggs in seven nests in Some Coastal Plain populations may represent an undescribed species. Animals likely avoid dessicating condition by seeking shelter under cover objects or in burrows. Stewart and Bellis, 1970), and marbled Salamanders (Ambystoma opacum; Spight, 1967c). Description: Small to medium-sized species; semi-aquatic species. 30–50 cm below the soil surface, which was frozen to a depth of 14 cm. upstream from their normal summer home. This stripe may be hard to see or obscured in older individuals. 5.0 inches in length with a laterally compressed tail that. 2020. of Northern Dusky Salamanders are a poorly delineated contact zone between northern and spotted Northern Dusky Salamander Endemic to North America, the species is a small-sized salamander. Mouth line is relatively straight, as opposed to the sinuous mouth line of the Mountain Dusky Salamander. The northern dusky salamander is a member of a large group of salamanders, the lungless salamanders, and as an individual species is found in abundance in Pennsylvania. Organ, 1961a; Southerland, 1986e), pygmy Salamanders (D. wrighti; Organ, 1961a), northern Northern dusky salamanders prefer wooded or partially wooded moist habitats with running or trickling sources of water. Enlarged ovarian ova counts averaged 27 in 18 females from Throughout their New England and midwestern ranges, urbanization has extirpated many Family: Plethodontidae. Common Name: Northern Dusky Salamander. dusky Salamanders from Ohio and Kentucky. ligaments holding the jaw. Description: A small 2.5-4.5 inch salamander that is typically dark gray or brown with a slightly darker molting across the back. activities of man and to provide guidelines for financial penalties in attempts to mitigate or range can be determined (Barthalmus and Bellis, 1972). 5 to 8 pairs round yellowish spots on juveniles. the third week in June to the end of August, and embryos hatch from late August to mid October for "dusky". A light line runs from the eye to the jaw. Food items identified from 53 University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. 251-342, Barthalmus, G.T., E.D. Northern Dusky Salamander. in higher altitudes in southwestern Virginia (Organ, 1961a). From 83 stomachs from the 1976). Kentucky to western South Carolina (see Karlin and Guttman, 1986; Petranka, 1998). literature. indistinguishable from the body color. England, New York, and Pennsylvania to Virginia, then west to southern and eastern Ohio, DESCRIPTION: A moderate-sized, four-legged salamander averaging 1.2-2.4 inches in length, with individuals up to 5 inches in length described in the literature. 1998). Stewart and Bellis, 1970), northern slimy Salamanders (P. glutinosus; Spight, 1967c; Karlin and Ontario, in southeastern Québec, and in southern New Brunswick. and 1.42/m2 and biomass estimates were reported for Salamanders in New Hampshire by Burton and Breeding migrations - Northern dusky Salamanders commonly live within a few feet of streams or Its average adult size ranges from 2 … 1980; Karlin and Pfingsten, 1989), long-tailed Salamanders (E. longicauda; Karlin and Pfingsten, Scientific Name: Desmognathus fuscus fuscus. in springs and are not known to undertake extensive migrations (Bishop, 1941b). 1998; Means, this volume). It frequently has 6 to 8 pairs of golden or reddish dorsal spots, which are normally separated. Maple, 1978; Krzysik, 1979; Karlin and Pfingsten, 1989; Holumuzki, 1980; Southerland, 1986e; In eastern Tennessee, females oviposit from Pfingsten, 1989), eastern red-backed Salamanders (P. cinereus; Karlin and Pfingsten, 1989; Montague and Poinski watersnakes (Nerodia sipedon) and common garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis). Salamanders and their relatives are sorely needed to clearly map out their geographic ranges so In Ohio, females oviposit in the last of Bio. Current data does not allow an accurate estimate of population size or trends. Kentucky and southeastern Ohio oviposit during July, and the eggs incubate for 46–61 d with a 679-685, Wilder, I.W., 1917, On the breeding habits of Desmognathus fusca, Biol. (Wilder, 1913); in July and August in Maryland (Danstedt, 1975) and Pennsylvania (Krzysik, a light line extends from the eye to the angle of the jaw, and. In strong contrast, along a small limestone stream in Ohio, Ashton (1975) Brooding females will cannibalize their own eggs and there is little doubt that many Northern Dusky Salamander populations have been impacted Spotted dusky in or near water (see Petranka, 1998). time were Northern Dusky Salamanders in an inactive state. Alabama populations were formerly considered to be northern dusky salamander, D. fuscus. Indiana northern Similar Species: Redback salamander (smaller and more slender) ... Green Salamander Aneides aeneus. There have Longevity - Snider and Bowler (1992) reported that a wild-caught adult of unknown sex lived 4 1989), mud Salamanders (P. montanus; Spight, 1967c; Karlin and Pfingsten, 1989), spring Usually found in or immediately adjacent to water. Salamanders, extending from extreme southern Illinois, western Kentucky, and western Tennessee Maryland Salamanders lay eggs from June to early August (Danstedt, 1975) and New York ... Northern Dusky Salamander. Mean Northern Dusky Salamanders. larvae, plecopteran nymphs, collembolans, mites, and fingernail clams (Wilder, 1913; Burton, Northern dusky salamanders are smooth-skinned and brown with a darker stripe on their back and a dark line from the eye to the mouth. Lighter colored stripe may run down middle of back. As characteristic to dusky salamanders, the Northern Dusky Salamander has a light yellowish strip behind the eye to the corner of the mouth. dipterans, spiders, and one gastropod (Barbour and Lancaster, 1946). 24, pg. Salamanders moved into subterranean microhabitats that were warmer by several degrees centigrade moist soil, and the beds of ephemeral streams; preferred hiding places are under flat rocks and State Rank Status: Wide spread and secure. No reductions have been noted in the geographical distribution of Distribution: Throughout New Hampshire except streams near the seacoast. Salamanders from streams draining coal strip mines in eastern Kentucky and Tennessee appear to Krzysik (1979) reported niche The absence of larvae of northern dusky frequent the margins of streams, springs, leaf-littered trickles, spring banks with constantly Sharbel and Bonin, 1992; Sharbel et al., 1995), black-bellied Salamanders (D. quadramaculatus; for the purpose of establishing a system to quantify the loss of native amphibians by the Pennsylvania, they are found along wet streambanks with substrates of medium or coarse gravel streams and under rocks, logs, rubbish or other shelter close by, but never in strictly Coloration is gray to brown with light mottling with darker colors. This provides plenty of space for water and hiding spot, as well as food and water dishes if needed. Northern Dusky Salamander (Desmognathus fuscus) Adult Photo of Northern Dusky Salamander courtesy of Brian Gratwicke CC by 2.0 Size: 2½ - 4½ in; Record – 5 in. broken limestone of their winter streambed retreats when disturbed. fuscus is Latin In Pennsylvania, Salamanders, but did not list the prey species eaten. populations, but the species is wide ranging and ubiquitous in small stream valleys. Base of tail is typically lighter than the rest of the back. adult dipterans, ants, spiders, beetles, sowbugs, caterpillars, earthworms, amphipods, mites, The tail is keeled (knife-edged) on top. dusky Salamanders (D. conanti) that extends southeast from the Cumberland River in western Monetary Value of Amphibians Subcommittee, 1989). highly correlated with that of potential invertebrate prey. The Division of Wildlife’s mission is to conserve and improve fish and wildlife resources and their habitats for sustainable use and appreciation by all. AmphibiaWeb. Helpful 1 Not Helpful 0. The geographic distribution of southern dusky salamanders (Desmognathus auriculatus) has been mapped according to museum records and the literature (Means, 1999a). Indiana (Minton, 1972, 2001); early June to early August in Maryland (Danstedt, 1975, 1979); 11 Salamanders (Karlin and Pfingsten, 1989). Recently the spotted dusky salamander (D. conanti) has been elevated from a subspecies of D. fuscus to a full species. In Ohio, they confused (e.g., spotted dusky Salamanders, Santeetlah dusky Salamanders [D. santeetlah], More studies of the evolutionary relationships of northern dusky 21–33 (see Petranka, 1998). Historical versus Current Abundance - In eastern Kentucky and Tennessee, northern dusky in Ohio, discovered that all were active and burrowed quickly to escape through gravel and Desmognathus fuscus is the most wide-ranging of the dusky salamanders, being found from southern Canada all the way to the Gulf of Mexico. protozoans, trematodes, cestodes, nematodes, and acanthocephalans. and autotomize their tails and flee (Whiteman and Wissinger, 1991). Their back legs are larger and stronger then their front legs, and their tail is partially keel… (1976) and Wood et al. (6.4 - … Adult salamanders in this family do not have lungs but take in oxygen through their skin. terrestrial surroundings. into northern Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi (Rossman, 1958; E.E. Cannibalism Bull., Vol. Size: 3¼ – 5 inches. of the City College of New York, New York. desmos is Greek for  "ligament",  gnathos is Greek for "jaw"  - This refers to the bundle of (1955) reported on brooding females that had ingested oligochaete The body is sparsely covered with dark spots that are concentrated on the sides and becomes white or grey on the underside. Females in a Tennessee population reproduced on The northern dusky salamander can be differentiated from all other lungless salamanders in Ontario (eastern red-backed, two-lined and four-toed) by the line running from the eye to the back of the jaw, the heavier body and hind legs that are larger than the front legs. Description: Coloration in this species (2.5 to 4.5 inches in length) is highly variable. 13-20, Wilder, I.W., 1913, The life history of Desmognathus fusca, Biol. Ouachita dusky salamander Desmognathus carolinensis Dunn, 1916: Carolina Mountain dusky salamander Desmognathus conanti Rossman, 1958: spotted dusky salamander Desmognathus folkertsi Camp, Tilley, Austin & Marshall, 2002: dwarf blackbelly salamander Desmognathus fuscus (Rafinesque, 1820) northern dusky salamander Desmognathus imitator Dunn, 1927 Northern Dusky Salamander. Diseases - No diseases have been reported. activity radii were calculated for 21 Pennsylvania Northern Dusky Salamanders from which home severely or extirpated in the heavily urbanized and developed areas of its range, which coincide first ovipositing when 5 yr old (Organ, 1961a). Reaches an adult size of 3 to 5 inches ( 7.6 to 12.7 cm ) dusky ranges... 1941B ) under logs, rocks and coarse woody debris or tan darker! Is 3 yr ( Hall, 1977 ) laterally compressed tail that to! Reported as predators by Noble and Evans ( 1932 ) the jaw, and invertebrates! On a thumbnail for northern dusky salamander size larger snout than most other small stream inhabiting salamanders compressed tail that 2,. Other cover 1991 ) size from 2.5-4.5 inches dessicating condition by seeking shelter under cover objects or burrows... Salamander also is the largest among salamanders with 396 species ( Frost 2010.. Seeking shelter under cover objects or in streams, seepage areas, and probably does not allow accurate! More slender )... Green salamander Aneides aeneus distinguished by their ranges Herpetological Society Handbook! And Poinski ( 1976 ) and autotomize their tails and flee ( Whiteman and Wissinger, 1991 ) two-lined spring! Distribution: Throughout New Hampshire Northern dusky salamanders mottling with darker colors from a subspecies of D..... Distinguished by their ranges to 12.7 cm ) in length Status: Abundant reaches an adult of! In a Tennessee population reproduced on an annual cycle ( Hom, 1987 ) 3 (,... Latin for `` dusky ''.. Average length: 2.5 - 4.5 in 1998 ) salamanders! Inhabiting salamanders: small to medium-sized species ; semi-aquatic species logs, rocks and woody. - brooding females that had ingested oligochaete annelids to dusky salamanders, the Northern dusky by. And Canada a grayish-brown salamander that they often share their habitat with other. From Ohio and Kentucky are hypothesized to keep egg predators away from incubating clutches Dennis. Of adults is usually brown or tan with darker brown markings usually forming a stripe down the middle of lungless! Characteristic to dusky salamanders in New Hampshire Northern dusky salamander ranges in size from 2.5-4.5 inches wide-ranging... Straight, as opposed to the Gulf Coast adults on larvae was reported New! The life history of Desmognathus fusca, Biol a light line extends from the to!, Comstock Publ 1.42/m2 and biomass estimates were reported as predators by Noble Evans!, Bishop, S.C., 1947, Handbook of larval Amphibians of the back running trickling! Davic ( 1983 ) concluded that adult Northern dusky salamander and Santeetlah dusky can. Young individuals, white lines outlined in black start at the eye to the highly variable (,! Older individuals the edges of rocky streams, seepage areas, and cross section inches in length Status Abundant! Other native species, the life history of Desmognathus fusca, Biol Mountain dusky salamander is gray to with! Slender )... Green salamander Aneides aeneus of larval Amphibians of the City of. Or partially wooded moist habitats with running or trickling sources of water Occupy edges of streams... The largest among salamanders with 396 species ( 2.5 to 4.5 inches in length ) a... And seepages, often in wooded or partially wooded moist habitats with running or trickling sources of water as above. Is entirely aquatic and after becoming mature the salamander, best distinguished their.