In the first telling, Judas actively colludes with the Jerusalem authorities and leads them to Jesus. But when I was in the twenty-sixth year of my age, it happened that I took a voyage to Rome, and this on the occasion which I shall now describe. Think how often people write “which” when they should write “that”, and vice versa. One other possibility I didn’t mention–suppose Judas didn’t kill himself, but was murdered, by enraged followers of Jesus? Is it just me or do these Marys multiply with each gospel written? i have an off topic question. [13] Paul does not mention any appearances to women, apart from "sisters" included in the 500; other New Testament sources do not mention any appearance to a crowd of 500. b) Mark or his community made it to Alexandria where the tradition of Mark or his community was patronized to put their oral tradition into written form–and likely placed in one of the libraries of Alexandria. But, well, the reality is that we don’t know how much Paul knew about the traditions surrounding Jesus. As this document was discovered in the 1830s, I wonder if any modern technology could recover any of the erased lines through x-ray or ultraviolet light? But that has not stopped I just wanted to send out my congratulation to the Pittsburgh Penguins for winning the Stanley Cup a few days ago. Luke might not have read it, but he would have heard some of the same stories Matthew was influenced by. Eight sources testify to the disciples’ proclamation that Jesus rose from the dead and had appeared to them: Paul (including 1 Cor. And in any event, both wrote about many things we can be pretty sure did not happen. The Gospel of John was written some time after 80 or 90 CE. 15:5) I find this to be a big mistake; given the multiple gospel stories about Judas’s betrayal and subsequent suicide. As I said, Paul says “He appeared to Cephas and then to the Twelve,” not “He appeared to Cephas and then to the REST OF THE Twelve.” I think you are reading Cephas’ characterization in the Gospels back into Paul. It’s all part of this fantasy where Judas betrayed Jesus by pointing him out in the garden of Gethsemane. [6] According to the theology of Imperial Roman apotheosis, the earthly body of the recently deceased emperor vanished, he received a new and divine one in its place, and was then seen by credible witnesses;[7] thus, in a story similar to the Gospel appearances of the resurrected Jesus and the commissioning of the disciples, Romulus, the founder of Rome, descended from the sky to command a witness to bear a message to the Romans regarding the city's greatness ("Declare to the Romans the will of Heaven that my Rome shall be the capital of the world...") before being taken up on a cloud. Has there been any debate about the possibility that the story of Judas’ betrayal sprung from a misunderstanding of “handed over” versus “betrayed.”. [4] This, according to the gospels, was the stance of Jesus, who defended it in an exchange with the Sadducees: "Those who are accounted worthy ... to the resurrection from the dead neither marry nor are given in marriage, for they ... are equal to the angels and are children of God..." (Mark 12:24–25, Luke 20:34–36). [13] There is general agreement that the list is pre-Pauline – it is often called a catechism of the early church – but less on how much of the list belongs to the tradition and how much is from Paul: most scholars feel that Peter and the Twelve are original, but not all believe the same of the appearances to the 500, James and "all the Apostles". Since one of the qualifications for being a replacement for Judas was that one had been a witness to the resurrection, it was the case that Jesus had appeared to the Twelve, including Matthias, who (to repeat myself) was one of the Twelve when Paul wrote about it. When Paul states that Jesus “appeared” to “over 500 brethren at once” (1Cor. What is your position on Mark and Matthew being patrons? Appearance to Paul (Ac. [8], The experiences of the risen Christ attested by the earliest written sources – the "primitive Church" creed of 1 Corinthians 15:3–5, Paul in 1 Corinthians 15:8 and Galatians 1:16 – are ecstatic rapture events and "invasions of heaven". Judas suffered from the same misplaced ambition as the rest of the disciples. That’s among the clearest evidence that in fact the movement was not unified from the outset. Dr. Ehrman said: “Or else he is saying that first Jesus appeared to an individual from the group and then the entire group.”. Edited by Dennis E. Smith and Joseph B. Tyson. I received by revelation from Jesus Christ") and from God ("God ... was pleased to reveal His son in me"). Has any scholar posited the hypothesis that Timothy is the author of Luke-Acts? They are my favorite team, and their Captain, Sidney Crosby, is from Nova Scotia, the same Canadian province I am from! I understand your interpretation, but I’d consider the text far too ambiguous to draw that conclusion. Mark knows there are only 11 disciples after the resurrection In addition, Acts has appearances to Paul on the Road to Damascus, to the martyr Stephen, and to Peter, who hears the voice of Jesus. Paul in Acts 22 tells Festus that the Road-to-Damascus Jesus appeared in a trance after the Road-to-Damascus appearance. [48] Despite this, some biblical scholars tend to distinguish them; this is also not Roman Catholic dogma, though a traditional teaching. If you would like to ask a question, simply ask it in your comment. I’m not aware of any historical record of Jewish leaders turning someone over to the Roman authorities for execution in any way or any time. You’ll get lots for your money, so go for it! Paul does not mention any appearances to women, apart from "sisters" included in the 500; other New Testament sources do not mention any appearance to a crowd of 500. What I don’t understand is Paul saying that he received it from the Lord. Mark would appear to be the synoptic’s source of the story – written during or just after the First Jewish war perhaps prompting the author to absolve the Romans? Paul Arrested. But they focus on things like “the narrative concerns of the author” and the like. Good News Translation So Ananias went, entered the house where Saul was, and placed his hands on him. The idea that the group was referred to as “The Twelve” because “there were 12 apostles” doesn’t add up. And, behold, there was a great earthquake: for the angel of the Lord descended from heaven, and came and rolled back the stone from the … Which Greek word is used in the gospels? why did the religious priests no longer fear possible riot when they got jesus crucified hours before high holy day ? For the time being, I’m willing to put Matthew at Yavne/Jamnia, Luke-Acts in Rome, and Mark in Alexandria. Judas may have believed in a coming Kingdom, but *not* in any kind of “Messiah.” And after the crucifixion, he had no regrets; he went on to have a long and reasonably happy life. The proto-orthodox, with the creation of the Jesus of Nazareth story, were able to enforce a much more consistent tradition. Acts 23:11. Even Joseph had to be one. The context of the gospels seems clear, but Paul wrote much earlier. We notice right away in Luke’s version that Judas is not portrayed as being remorseful. [22][23] As a result, they diverge widely after Mark 16:8, where Mark ends with the discovery of the empty tomb. Saul, he said, “Brother Saul, the Lord—Jesus, who appeared to you on the road as you were coming here—has sent me so that you may see again and be filled with the Holy Spirit.” 18 Immediately, something like scales fell from Saul’s eyes, and he could see again. Acts is basically the sequel, and a chance for him to deal with things he failed to mention in the earlier work. The Last Supper episode in its entirety? But I’d like to point out that even if one accepts the “betrayal” as fact, there’s no good reason for believing Judas died soon afterward. Jesus and Judas have an et tu Brute? I find it interesting that Paul seems to suggest Cephas wasn’t one of the twelve: “and that He appeared to Cephas and then to the Twelve.”. Nowhere did Paul ever say that Jesus’ resurrection was in the flesh… always in the spirit. OR he made it up himself. Papias didn’t think very highly of Judas. The way the verse is normally read is that Jesus first appeared to an individual in the group then to the entire group (as in the Gospels). Is this the same shipwreck? Paul, I think, tends to stay away from controversial subjects as much as possible. 9:1-9) Lastly, Jesus appeared after his ascension to Paul. They felt the presence of Jesus in their own actions, "rising again, today and tomorrow, in the hearts of the men who love him and feel he is near. Matthew 28:16 records that the eleven went to Galilee, evidently waiting for Jesus to appear as He’d promised in the message delivered by the women. Moreover, it appears to pass the criterion of dissimilarity. Steefen: Well, this breaks the oral-tradition-to-written-gospel assertion and it breaks a connection to locale. “CONCLUSION: The gospels were not produced in their name because early manuscripts are not titled Matthew and Mark.”. Sure, but in that case it seems the Gospel of Peter is discounted as evidence there was a competing tradition that Judas survived until the appearances. Jerome’s opinion suggests an identification of James the Just with the Apostle James, son of Alphaeus; Clopas and Alphaeus are thought to be different Greek renderings of the same Aramaic name Halphai. Bart, who was the conductor of music in heaven ? The biggest objection is that the Gospels actually are not produced in their names. After all, he doesn’t say he *wasn’t*. In only one other New Testament book is there any reference to Judas’s death:  Acts 1:18-19. This article analyzes these 8 evidences: Bart’s “Big Ten” analogy works for me. Engaging Discussions about Early Christianity, Since April 2012, this blog has raised over. which passages are you referring to Dr. Ehrman? So wouldn’t this suggest that the tradition of Judas as the betrayer, was being widely circulated by the last quarter of the first century? Never mind Judas, how about Peter? So when Paul wrote in 1 Corinthians 15 that the risen Christ appeared individually to both Peter and James, he was effectively saying “I know this because I have heard their story first hand”. Paul says that there was a time we knew Christ after the flesh but no longer. This is precisely why Luke has cited those particular OT passages (from Psalms) in Acts 1:20: “Let his homestead become desolate” and “let another take his position…”. Well, here’s some. Hmmm, I detect the outlines of an interesting historical mystery novel here. There’s a theoretical possibility that both were on the same ship and one claimed the heroic role played by the other. Maybe Paul just “forgot” there were only eleven left! Probably I’m one of many to ask this question re today’s post, and by now you’re probably quite sick of answering it. These appearances convinced His disciples, beyond any doubt, that He had risen from the dead. Or a different tradition altogether? What we have is seven “authentic letters” from Paul, and every single one of them are written to individuals or groups of people that are *already* believers in Christ. The twelve are a mystery. He doesn’t know exactly what Judas did, or exactly why Judas did it. Again, nope. I don’t know how true that is. Steefan, So we must ask if a man has the chutzpah to steal another’s story is it more likely he would halve the number saved or double it to make him look heroic? [1] The appearance, or Christophany, of Jesus to Paul and others, was "internal and subjective. His testimony has every evidence of truth and sincerity, for he had no reason to be untruthful. I suspect this is the erased part, and given what follows appears to be an admission that the account of the Magi wasn’t included in the gospel of Matthew until 119 AD, perhaps the erased part admits that the virgin birth narrative found in Chapter 1 was also a late addition to the gospel – hence it’s removal. Eventually, these stories were retold and embellished, leading to the story that all disciples had seen the risen Jesus. in mark, the jews in 2 days are able to turn crowds against jesus. Schedule recurring donations to Bart's foundation using the form below. When Paul briefly mentions Jesus being handed over/betrayed, it isn’t hard to imagine he said “handed over” when he meant “betrayed.” But in the context of the gospels, even if they said “handed over”, Judas is portrayed as betraying Jesus. It appears not to have occurred to traditional scholarship to consider the reverse process – that Paul’s letters are not based on the Gospel events, but that the Gospels are derived from Paul’s letters! It’s very hard to get a consistent tradition if that tradition is based on individual visions (revelations) and scripture interpretations only. One, because the Greek words are so similar in spelling and meaning, they would be vulnerable to textual corruption (either accidental or purposeful). I’m thinking Matthew and Mark was understood without having to be titled until disparate geographical communities united in the triumph of Christianity. If Paul didn’t know about the story of Judas betraying Jesus, than the fact that he describes him as being “handed over” on the very same night others describe him as being “betrayed” would be an unusual coincidence, given the similarity of the words in Greek. According to both sources, Paul was not a follower of Jesus and did not know him before his crucifixion. This is also implied by Paul placing himself along with Cephas, the Twelve, the five hundred, James, and the rest of the apostles on the list of those to whom the resurrected Jesus appeared. [48][50] If Paul didn’t see any real value to preaching Christ where Christ was “already named”, one would hardly expect him to find a great deal of value in writing “the Gospel According to Paul” to people who had already received that message. If Jesus’ appearance to Paul was a vision, why would anyone assume that his appearances to the other people weren’t visions also? Paul doesn’t use that word: he uses the word ADELPHOS (literally a “brother”). Matthew, on the other hand, simply portrays the chief priests as buying “the potter’s field (“agros”) as a burial place for foreigners,” which, of course, has absolutely nothing at all to do with Judas. around the year 119 – in other words, this is when it was added to the Greek Gospel of Matthew (the Gospel of the Hebrews remained without the opening two chapters, presumably they did not care much for this story.). "[47] These visions may mostly have appeared during corporate worship. 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