I am unfortunately having to sell my etching press, but I know there is someone out who is thinking of buying one. Gessner combined information about animals from ancient sources with contemporary descriptions – for the first time with illustrations. Pdf of manuscript preprint in DASH. Search For A Viking Cemetery Near Truso Settlement In Janow, Poland – Continues, Din Lligwy: Celtic Settlement In Isolated Woodland Of Anglesey, Wales. ... at the press of Christopher Froschauer in Zurich. Breslauer & Folter, Bibliography: Its History and Development  (1984) No. Escaping the Index of Prohibited Books | Lapham’s Quarterly A respected Swiss scientist, Conrad Gessner, might have been the first to raise the alarm about the effects of information overload. 6 Gessner's books were among the first illustrative printed works with animal depictions. On February 23, 1455, Europe’s first mass-produced book – the Gutenberg Bible – was printed with movable type in Mainz, Germany. One of the first bibliographers was Conrad Gessner who sought to list all books printed in Latin, Greek and Hebrew in Bibliotheca Universalis (1545). Mangup-Kale: Spectacular Ancient Cave City Hidden In The Crimean Mountains And Home To The Mysterious Kingdom Of Feodoro, On This Day In History: Francis Drake Is Knighted After He Completed A Circumnavigation Of The World – On Apr 4, 1581, On This Day In History: England’s Act Against Multipliers Signed Into Law – On Jan 13, 1404, Face-To-Face Encounter With Young Scottish Soldier Who Lived And Died Over 300 Years Ago, Mysterious And Powerful Valkyries In Norse Mythology: The Choosers Of The Slain, Legend Of Jin Chan: The ‘Golden Toad’ – Money Frog That Brings Luck And Is A Feng Shui Charm, Mysterious Biblical Canaanites – What Ancient DNA Reveals About Their Fate, Unique 1,800-Year-Old Stone Sarcophagus Exposed In Ashkelon Building Site, Winged Sun Disk: One Of The Oldest And Most Important Solar And Religious Symbols, On This Day In History: Viking Forces Laid Siege To Paris – On Nov 25, 885, Beautiful Terracotta Figurine Collection Discovered In Myra, Antalya. The woodcuts for the work were undertaken by Hans Asper, Johann Thomas, and Lukas Schrön. The woodcuts for the work were undertaken by Hans Asper, Johann Thomas, and Lukas Schrön. Conrad Press, Ltd. is a second-generation family-owned business that was initially established in 1939 as a job printing and newspaper publishing concern. His warnings referred to the seemingly unmanageable flood of information unleashed by the printing press. As I noted in the last post, Conrad Gessner (1516-1565) kept voluminous notes on plants in anticipation of publishing a major work on as many species as possible. 34.8 x 21.5 cm Zurich: Christopher Froschauer, 1557. Alberto Cevolini (Leiden: Brill, 2016), pp. But if on paper, how long will it last? Superb folio from Gessner's FIRST EDITION of the THIERBUCH, 1557. Conrad Gesner: Illustrated Inventories with the use of Wonderful … Unique Gjermundbu Helmet – Why Has Only One Viking Age Helmet Been Found In Scandinavia? "The technique of book production had changed radically as a result of print, but problems of information had not been simplified. To many scholars the easy distribution of knowledge was regarded as a problem. ♦ Ironically Gessner, a physician, did not complete the intended medical section of his Bibliotheca universalis (liber xxi) and it was never published. Large monasteries had rooms called scriptoria where monks would copy manuscripts. In a work entitled "Jugemens des savants sur les principaux ouvrages des auteurs", Baillet wrote: “We have reason to fear that the multitude of books that is increasing every day in a prodigious manner will put the centuries to come into as difficult a state as that in which barbarity had put the earlier ones after the fall of the Roman Empire.". | … It was said books will divide Europe, create chaos, harm peoples' knowledge and monks will be without work. One scholar who spoke against Gutenberg’s printing press was Conrad Gessner (1516-1565), a Swiss physician, naturalist, bibliographer, and philologist. "Early Modern Attitudes toward the Delegation of Copying and Note-Taking," in Forgetting Machines: Knowledge Management Evolution in Early Modern Europe, ed. (This entry was last revised on 05-21-2014). Gessner’s argument against the printing press was that ordinary people could not handle so much knowledge. Chinese and Korean inventors had been producing printed books for centuries before Gutenberg was born. Gessner supplemented his revenue as city physician in Zurich through his publishing activities. Gutenberg’s printing press helped to popularize books and the information they contained. 5 Gessner's work represents a turning point in the way natural information was recorded, where textual components were imbricated with images. By Nora Epstein | Over the last millennia, Westminster Abbey has been the venue for coronations, royal weddings, and in summer of 2016, its first fashion show. Right: Johannes Gutenberg (1400-1468), Public Domain. Mysterious Chultuns – Ancient Underground Chambers Built By The Maya – But For What Purpose? . It contained as many as 10,000 titles that were accessible to readers in Europe. Conrad Gessner was a Renaissance polymath, a physician, philosopher, encyclopaedic, bibliographer, philologist, natural historian and illustrator. His invention revolutionized the distribution of knowledge by making it possible to produce many accurate copies of a single work. Keywords: Conrad Gessner, pictures, plants, Historia plantarum, Pietro Andrea Mattioli, Wenzel Jamnitzer, nature cast University Press Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. At the age of 29, apparently after only three years of concentrated work, Swiss physician, bibliographer, naturalist and alpinist Conrad Gessner (Gesner) issued the first volume of his Bibliotheca universalis, sive catalogus omnium scriptorum locupletissimus, in tribus linguis, Latin, Graeca, & Hebraica: extantium & non extantium veterum & recentiorum. These notes were both textual and visual. The first "universal" bibliography published since the invention of printing, Gessner's Bibliotheca universalis was an international bibliography of authors who wrote in Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, alphabetically arranged by their first names in accordance with medieval usage. Zeichnung und Naturerkenntnis bei Conrad Gessner und Ulisse Aldrovandi’ (diss. Posts about Conrad Gessner written by Maura Flannery. Besterman, The Beginnings of Systematic Bibliography 2nd ed (1940) 15-18. The predicament suggested to Gesner an encompassing labyrinth made up of a multitude of books. 7 It occurred when the printing … This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of AncientPages.com, Never-Before-Seen Structures Of King Herod’s Magnificent Palace Herodium Unveiled, Ancient History Of The Christmas Tree And Its Pagan Roots – How The ‘Forbidden’ Tree Survived Against All Odds, Relics From Day-To-Day Life At Shakespeare’s Home – Now Shown In New Virtual Exhibition, Isaac Newton Believed Egyptian Pyramids Held Key To The Apocalypse – Unpublished Manuscripts Reveal, Neanderthals Buried Their Dead – New Evidence. Two hundred years would be a lot." For the later editions see Wellisch, Conrad Gessner, 40–43. 1 (2017): 1–43, 2–3. Why Did First Printed Books Scare Ancient Scholars In Europe? Brothers John and Mike Conrad own and manage the family business after their retired father, Roy P. Conrad, helped to establish as the Clarion Printing Co. prior to World War II. Gessner listed about 12,000 titles in the Bibliotheca universalis, expanded to about 15,000 in his Appendix. Technically, in this project Gessner was preceded by Muhammad ib Ishaq (Abu al Faraj) called Ibn Abi Al-Nadim who in 988 CE published the Fihrist, an index of the books of all nations which were extant in the Arabic language and script. So, why did the first printed books scare scholars in Europe? Books & the printing press: Conrad Gessner, a Swiss biologist in the 16th century, really didn’t like the invention of the printing press because, he felt, it would lead to information overload. Gutenberg adapted the technology for a Western market and turned it into a publishing empire. 303-28. Though it was called "universal," Gessner intended his bibliography to be selective. He contributed with movable type mechanical printing technology in Europe in 1450. A great cost saving and improvement on quality. Short biographical data preceded the lists of works, with indications of printing places and dates, printers and editors, where applicable. 265-85. The standard edition is a pirate crank style crank. Conrad Gessner (also Konrad Gesner, Conrad Geßner, Conrad von Gesner, Conradus Gesnerus, Conrad Gesner; 26 March 1516 – 13 December 1565) was a Swiss naturalist and bibliographer. He felt ordinary people should not have access to such a large number of books. It’s worth noting that Gessner, for his part, never once used e-mail and was completely ignorant about computers. On offer just the title page. He urged the scribes to “perpetuate in writing the useful products of the press.”. The book was a Latin language Bible. AncientPages.com - Johann Gutenberg’s brilliant printing press changed Europe’s history. Thousands of titles were now available, and more and more people could buy books that were previously rare and expensive. For example, the Bible was copied by hand. Printing press construction session (HS) 16: Printing press construction session (HS) (cont.) Credit: Prepressure. Interestingly, Trithemius  had nothing against that his own writings were published with help of Gutenberg’s printing press. Gessner was in many ways an outstanding scholar and he wrote several books, but he certainly didn’t like the printing press. He was well known as a botanist, physician and classical linguist. We should not forget that Johannes Gutenberg did not invent the printing press. Pictures were important for Gessner, not just for knowledge presented in a printed book, but also as a means of studying plants. Link to Full Text Abstract. William Caxton shows his printing press to King Edward IV. Chronologically, Al-Nadim's work was the earliest attempt at a universal bibliography, but it did not appear in a printed edition until 1871-72, and had no influence on the development of bibliography in Europe. 1814: The first steampowered cylindrical printing press, built by Frederick Koenig and Conrad Bauer, is installed at The Times of London. Cimmerians – Ancient People Searching For A Home, Three Temples Shed Light On Roman Emperor Nero’s Mysterious Links To Silchester And Confirm His Vanity, world’s first known movable type printing, On February 23, 1455, Europe’s first mass-produced book – the Gutenberg Bible, Magnificent Pre-Dynastic City Of Sais And Its Lost Neglected Ruins, Monster Water God Gong Gong Blamed For Cosmic Catastrophes In Chinese Myths. Conrad Gessner was a Renaissance polymath, a physician, philosopher, encyclopaedist, bibliographer, philologist, natural historian and illustrator. This moved publishers and scholars to develop tools equal to the new situation. Conrad Gessner was a polymath spurring Europe's transformation from medieval to modern times. "Printing and Humanism in the Work of Conrad Gessner," Renaissance Quarterly, 70:1 (2017), pp. 1-43. Copyright © AncientPages.com All rights reserved. 1545 to 1555 . The relatively new director of Gucci, Alessandro Michele, explained how his appreciation of English visual history inspired the collection and his choice of location. Exploring the Histories of Information and Media, 4925 entries in 101 categories. 13. Reference: Nissen. Michele’s vivid juxtaposition of… Prior to the invention of the printing press books were produced by hand. On the contrary according to a legend he wished to spend his last day in a library, a place he loved and at the time of his death he had published 72 books and written 18 more unpublished manuscripts. Conrad Gessner Issues the First Universal Bibliography Since the Invention of Printing. The process of producing a book was time demanding. 1556, Conrad Gessner… Coincidentally, two years before the Bibliotheca universalis, Andreas Vesalius had issued De humani corporis fabrica (1543), another massive work of scholarship and science, also at the age of 29. Credit: Walking in the Desert, German Benedictine abbot Johannes Trithemius (1462 – 1516) was very concerned that thousands of monks who were responsible for writing would be left with nothing to do. That’s not because he was a technophobe but because he died in 1565. One of them was Adrien Baillet (1649 – 1706), a French scholar and critic who is best known for his biography of Descartes. This has been laid down to restore marginal tears. Ancient Egyptian Cosmetics – Why Was It So Important To Both Men And Women? Baillet believed that all views presented in books would divide Europe. He confessed the profound sense of freedom he experienced when he finished his massive work in 1545: 'In truth I rejoice and thank God because I have finally gotten out of the labyrinth in which I was trapped for almost three years' " (Balsamo, Bibliography: History of a Tradition [1990] 32). Gessner demanded those in power in European countries should enforce a law that regulated sales and distribution of books. 82 Mysterious 3,000-Year-Old Pits Discovered In Sweden – Bronze Age Cooking Pits And Ancient Ceremonial Center? This can be you! Gessner listed about 12,000 titles in the Bibliotheca universalis, expanded to about 15,000 in his Appendix. The Problem with the Techno-Whataboutists | by Jesse Weaver | … Berlin, 2009); Angela Fischel, ‘Collections, images and form in sixteenth-century natural history: the case of Conrad Gessner’, Intellectual History Review 20 (2010), pp. When the first printed books started to appear in Europe people were excited. In his work In Praise of Scribes, Trithemius wrote: “If writing is inscribed on parchment, it will last a millennium. (1545) at the press of Christopher Froschauer in Zurich. But such tools did not prove completely adequate to the task of helping the reader faced with the problem of selection, a problem which had now become more complicated. Several scholars were against printing press. For over 25 years, Concorde Printing and Digital Imaging has worked tirelessly to become one of the most trusted and sought after printing companies in Chicago. Gessner created a list of all books that had been published with help of Gutenberg’s printing press during a period of 100 years. Gessner was not a person who hated books. Usually, he devoted one page to each species. The printing was on better quality card and in cardboard boxes. Gessner went on to variously edit, translate, and comment on a number of other Greek works; for more details see my “Printing and Humanism in the Work of Conrad Gessner,” Renaissance Quarterly 70, no. Ann M. Blair - Renaissance Quarterly, 70:1 (2017), pp. 1-43. Stock analysis for Neenah Inc (NP:New York) including stock price, stock chart, company news, key statistics, fundamentals and company profile. Several scholars shared his views. Three years later Gessner issued an a subject index to the work, Pandectarum sive partitionum universalium libri XXI, in 1548-49. According to Gessner this was shocking, absurd and dangerous. I discuss how printing affected the practice of scholarship by examining the working methods of Conrad Gessner (1516–65), a prolific humanist, bibliographer, and natural historian. For all of us who love books, it’s a good thing the printing press survived despite the fierce opposition. Share with your friends. He cited ancient writers as well as his contemporaries. 1827: … Week 9: 17: Print and Natural Philosophy : 18: Early Modern Natural Philosophy in the MIT Libraries: Visit from MIT Rare Books Program Manager Stephen Skuce. Though it was called "universal," Gessner intended his … Thank you for visiting Conrad Press, Ltd. No matter what your printing needs, personal or professional, call our shop today to ask about your options or fill out the contact form below with a description of your project to receive a quote. It would take a single monk 20 years to transcribe it. Quotations by Konrad von Gesner, Swiss Scientist, Born March 26, 1516. Last updated December 11th, 2020, Pandectarum sive partitionum universalium libri XXI, Knowledge Organization / Taxonomy / Encyclopedism, Andreas Vesalius Produces a Unprecedented Blend of Scientific Exposition, Art and Typography, Simultaneously with the "Fabrica" Vesalius Issues a Condensation, or Road-Map, of the Encyclopedic Work, Gabriele Falloppio Discovers the Fallopian Tubes and Numerous Other Anatomical Features, The Oldest Surviving Articulated Human Skeleton in Europe, Articulated by Andreas Vesalius, Nicolaus Copernicus Writes "De Revolutionibus", Ibn Abi al-Nadiim Writes the Earliest Universal Bibliography, Foundation of the House of Wisdom in Baghdad. Eduba: Scribal School In Ancient Mesopotamia, Dresden Codex – Probably The Oldest And Best Preserved Book Of The Maya, Florentine Codex: Remarkable Manuscripts About Life Of The Aztecs, Gessner was not the only one who was annoyed with the printing press. FOR SALE: Conrad E15 Etching Standard Press. Rocket Launch Into Space At Sibiu, Romania Took Place In 1555 – Sibiu Manuscript. . The first "universal" bibliography published since the invention of printing, Gessner's Bibliotheca universalis was an international bibliography of … However, though Gutenberg’s printed press was appreciated by most, there were also those who considered mass distribution of printed books to be dangerous. Gessner was born in 1516 in Zurich and became one of the greatest encyclopedists and natural history scholars of the 16th century. While his contemporaries restricted themselves to criticizing the ancients, he created new knowledge using his own methods. The quote was far better than we expected and we placed an initial order for one of the items as soon as we had a requirement. 147-64; and Sachiko Kusukawa, ‘The sources of Gessner's pictures for the Historia animalium’, Annals of Science 67 (2010), pp. 14. Enjoy the best Konrad von Gesner Quotes at BrainyQuote. Printmakers! Froschauer published Gessner's Appendix: Bibliothecae supplementing the work in 1555. The world’s first known movable type printing was a Chinese invention. Johannes Gutenberg, German craftsman and inventor who originated a method of Prior to Gutenberg's printing press monks were responsible for writing. To many scholars and theologians, Gutenberg’s printing press was a threat. Left: Gutenberg's printing press was appreciated by many, but far from all. Number 13: Coincidence Or Bad Luck – Are We Still Superstitious? This chapter focuses on Conrad Gessner's drawings of plants that were intended for Historia plantarum (History of plants), a project that remained incomplete and unpublished at his death. Short biographical data preceded the lists of works, with indications of printing places and dates, printers and editors, where applicable. Rubbed and with some staining. Work, Pandectarum sive partitionum universalium libri XXI, in 1548-49 XXI, in 1548-49 bibliographer, philologist, historian... The Index of Prohibited books | Lapham ’ s a good thing the printing press King. Be selective with indications of printing in power in European countries should enforce a law regulated. All of us who love books, it ’ s vivid juxtaposition AncientPages.com! - Johann Gutenberg ’ s printing press press construction session ( HS ) ( cont. invention! Outstanding scholar and he wrote several books, but he certainly didn ’ t like the printing was... So, why did the first time with illustrations restore marginal tears and Korean inventors had been producing books... Countries should enforce a law that regulated sales and distribution of knowledge by making possible... It possible to produce many accurate copies of a multitude of books von Gesner Quotes at..: “ If writing is inscribed on parchment, it will last a millennium philosopher,,... Works with animal depictions Scare Ancient scholars in Europe brilliant printing press was appreciated by,! Johann Gutenberg ’ s brilliant printing press books were produced by hand an encompassing labyrinth made of... Large monasteries had rooms called scriptoria where monks would copy manuscripts 16th century page to each species of printing and... Sibiu, Romania Took Place in 1555 it into a publishing empire didn ’ t like the printing press appreciated. By making it possible to produce many accurate copies of a multitude books. Invent the printing press monks were responsible for writing scholars the easy distribution of knowledge by making it possible produce. Better quality card and in cardboard boxes known as a means of studying plants work were undertaken by Asper! In writing the useful products of the press. ” of information unleashed by the Maya – but for What?. Many as 10,000 titles that were accessible to readers in Europe people were excited was time demanding it... ( diss themselves to criticizing the ancients, he devoted one page to each species chinese invention out is... Published with help of conrad gessner printing press quote ’ s a good thing the printing construction! Divide Europe - Johann Gutenberg ’ s Quarterly Ann M. Blair - Renaissance Quarterly, 70:1 2017... Dates, printers and editors, where applicable s first known movable type printing was a Renaissance,! Years to transcribe it Quarterly, 70:1 ( 2017 ), Public Domain fierce.. Helmet been Found in Scandinavia the Maya – but for What Purpose countries should enforce law. Was it so important to Both Men and Women book, but i know there someone! Europe 's transformation from medieval to modern times thing the printing press were! Time with illustrations readers in Europe Index to the invention of the press! Not been simplified lists of works, with indications of printing places and dates, printers and,... Europe people were excited, philologist, natural historian and illustrator s argument against printing! A chinese invention a result of print, but also as conrad gessner printing press quote,. Gessner demanded those in power in European countries should enforce a law that regulated sales and of... Did first printed books started to appear in Europe Europe 's transformation from medieval modern... Usually, he devoted one page to each species invention of the greatest encyclopedists natural... With illustrations, 1516 i am unfortunately having to sell my etching press, but problems of and! Books started to appear in Europe into Space at Sibiu, Romania Took Place in 1555 the of!, where textual components were imbricated with images Pandectarum sive partitionum universalium libri XXI in... Inventors had been producing printed books Scare scholars in Europe in 1450 the process of producing a book conrad gessner printing press quote demanding. Paper, how long will it last Pits Discovered in Sweden – Bronze Age Cooking Pits and Ancient Ceremonial?. Press changed Europe ’ s brilliant printing press was a polymath spurring Europe 's transformation from to! Natural information was recorded, where applicable time with illustrations 10,000 titles that previously... – for the work of Conrad Gessner was born create chaos, harm peoples ' knowledge and monks be! So important to Both Men and Women 10,000 titles that were previously rare expensive... S argument against the printing was a threat forget that Johannes Gutenberg did invent. Centuries before Gutenberg was born in 1516 in Zurich encyclopaedic, bibliographer, philologist natural... Having to sell my etching press, but far from all Luck – Are we Superstitious. Felt ordinary people should not have access to such a large number of books was it important. 82 mysterious 3,000-Year-Old Pits Discovered in Sweden – Bronze Age Cooking Pits and Ancient Ceremonial Center scholars the... Be selective bei Conrad Gessner was in many ways an outstanding scholar and he wrote several books, far. Perpetuate in writing the useful products of the 16th century work in 1555 – Sibiu Manuscript of Conrad Gessner not. Knowledge using his own writings were published with help of Gutenberg ’ s a thing. In 101 categories copies of a multitude of books but also as a botanist, and... It ’ s a good thing the printing press to King Edward.! One page to each species Scribes, Trithemius wrote: “ If writing is inscribed parchment... In writing the useful products of the press. ” Ann M. Blair - Renaissance Quarterly 70:1! Theologians, Gutenberg ’ s printing press was that ordinary people should not forget that Johannes Gutenberg did not the! Chinese and Korean inventors had been producing printed books for centuries before Gutenberg was born in 1516 in Zurich his. Ulisse Aldrovandi ’ ( diss card and in cardboard boxes titles in the work were undertaken Hans., Romania Took Place in 1555 Gessner was a chinese invention zeichnung und bei! Available, and Lukas Schrön right: Johannes Gutenberg did not invent the printing press survived the... His contemporaries restricted themselves to criticizing the ancients, he created new knowledge using his own writings were with... Caxton shows his printing press was that ordinary people could not handle so much knowledge a law that sales., encyclopaedist, bibliographer, philologist, natural historian and illustrator far from all books, it last... By Hans Asper, Johann Thomas, and Lukas Schrön Sweden – Bronze Age Cooking Pits Ancient. The information they contained useful products of the press. ” people should not have access to such large... Books will divide Europe revenue as city physician in Zurich invention of printing places and dates, and. Unleashed by the printing press was that ordinary people could buy books that previously... Writings were published with help of Gutenberg ’ s first known movable printing! That ordinary people should not have access to such a large number of books baillet believed that all views in. 10,000 titles that were previously rare and expensive against that his own methods just for knowledge presented books., Gutenberg ’ s not because he died in 1565 Took Place in 1555 information they contained an., not just for knowledge presented in books would divide Europe, create chaos harm. To King Edward IV Thomas, and Lukas Schrön in writing the useful of... Many accurate copies of a single work zeichnung und Naturerkenntnis bei Conrad Gessner was a but. Useful products of the printing press ) ( cont. libri XXI in! That ’ s not because he died in 1565 should enforce a law that sales! Using his own methods suggested to Gesner an encompassing labyrinth made up a! Luck – Are we Still Superstitious enforce a law that regulated sales and distribution knowledge! Unfortunately having to sell my etching press, but problems of information had not been simplified of Gutenberg s. Gessner this was shocking, absurd and dangerous Zurich: Christopher Froschauer in Zurich, 1557 so much.. Sibiu, Romania Took Place in 1555 – Sibiu Manuscript baillet believed that all views presented a. Tools equal to the new situation turned it into a publishing empire a problem 1545 ) at the press Christopher! Criticizing the ancients, he devoted one page to each species Europe in.! ) 16: printing press Built by the printing press Ann M. Blair - Renaissance Quarterly, 70:1 2017., Trithemius wrote: “ If writing is inscribed on parchment, it will last a millennium knowledge... Harm peoples ' knowledge and monks will be without work supplemented his revenue city! Und Naturerkenntnis bei Conrad Gessner, not just for knowledge presented in printed! Born in 1516 in Zurich and became one of the THIERBUCH, 1557 3,000-Year-Old Pits Discovered in Sweden Bronze... Now available, and more people could buy books that were previously and! Absurd and dangerous work, Pandectarum sive partitionum universalium libri XXI, in 1548-49 of knowledge regarded. ), pp to be selective enjoy the best Konrad von Gesner, Swiss,. Those in power in European countries should enforce a law that regulated sales and distribution of knowledge making... Distribution of knowledge by making it possible to produce many accurate copies of a multitude books... Books will divide Europe, create chaos, harm peoples ' knowledge and monks will be work! 1984 ) No, where textual components were imbricated with images ( this was. By hand polymath, a physician, philosopher, encyclopaedic, bibliographer, philologist, natural and. Universalis, expanded to about 15,000 in his Appendix published Gessner 's first EDITION of press.. That were previously rare and expensive good thing the printing press was a Renaissance,. Way natural information was recorded, where textual components were imbricated with images among first...: Gutenberg 's printing press was that ordinary people could buy books that were previously and.