Nevertheless, its commercial enterprises expanded rapidly in the 2nd century bce, exciting the envy of Rome’s growing mercantile community. [17][14], Other, later, ancient histories of the war exist, although often in fragmentary or summary form. It entered Gaul and took an inland route, to avoid the Roman allies to the south. [120], A rebellion in support of the Carthaginians broke out on Sardinia in 213 BC, but it was quickly put down by the Romans. In such circumstances it was difficult to force a battle if the other commander was unwilling to fight. The account of the Roman historian Livy, who relied heavily on Polybius, is much used by modern historians where Polybius's account is not extant. In the spring of 212 BC the Romans stormed Syracuse in a surprise night assault and captured several districts of the city. An army was usually formed by combining a Roman legion with a similarly sized and equipped legion provided by their Latin allies; these legions usually had a larger attached complement of cavalry than Roman ones. [110], The greatest gain was the second largest city of Italy, Capua, when Hannibal's army marched into Campania in 216 BC. [64] At some time during the next six years Rome made a separate agreement with the city of Saguntum, which was situated well south of the Ebro. What connects the First and Second Punic Wars is Hamilcar Barca, a general that lead the reconquer of the Spanish Carthaginian territory. His surprise entry into the Italian peninsula led to the cancellation of Rome's planned campaign for the year: an invasion of Africa. The close order Libyan infantry and the citizen-militia would fight in a tightly packed formation known as a phalanx. In the years after the First Punic War, Rome wrested Corsica and Sardinia from Carthage and forced Carthaginians The First Punic War was … This was a long war, beginning in 264 BC and not ending until 241 BC. [154] After landing in Africa in 204 BC, he was joined by Masinissa and a force of Numidian cavalry. [128], Fabius was able to overrun the Carthaginian ally Arpi in 213 BC. [76] A Roman fleet carrying the Iberian-bound army landed at Rome's ally Massalia (modern Marseille) at the mouth of the Rhone,[77] but Hannibal evaded the Romans and they continued to Iberia. Hannibal ravaged Italy with impunity for 14 years, defeating every Roman army sent out to meet him. [160] Unlike most battles of the Second Punic War, the Romans had superiority in cavalry and the Carthaginians in infantry. One was stationed at Arretium, and one on the Adriatic coast; they would be able to block Hannibal's possible advance into central Italy, and be well positioned to move north to operate in Cisalpine Gaul. The Second Punic War (218–201 BC) was the second of three wars fought between Carthage and Rome, the two main powers of the western Mediterranean in the 3rd century BC. [111] When the port city of Locri defected to Carthage in the summer of 215 BC it was immediately used to reinforce the Carthaginian forces in Italy with soldiers, supplies and war elephants. [142] In this battle, he used his cavalry superiority to attempt to clear the field while attempting to envelop the enemy on both sides with his infantry. The Roman general Publius Scipio won a decisive battle at Ilipa in 206 and forced the Carthaginians out of Spain. The main source for almost every aspect of the Punic Wars[note 1] is the historian Polybius (c. 200 – c. 118 BC), a Greek sent to Rome in 167 BC as a hostage. Before the Second Punic War slaves were employed on a relatively small scale. The Second Punic War (aka The Hannibalic War) was fought between Carthage and Rome between 218 and 201 BCE. How long did the Second Punic War last? [82] As a result, most of the Gallic tribes declared for the Carthaginian cause, and Hannibal's army grew to more than 40,000 men. [69], In 218 BC there was some naval skirmishing in the waters around Sicily. 23 years. It started 52 years after the end of the second war. In Cisalpine Gaul (modern northern Italy), the major Gallic tribes attacked the Roman colonies there, causing the Romans to flee to their previously-established colony of Mutina (modern Modena), where they were besieged. [168] The Third Punic War began later in 149 BC when a large Roman army landed in North Africa[169] and besieged Carthage. The Second Punic War or the Hannibalic War lasted sixteen years from 218 BC to 202 BC and was fought between the two major powers of Rome and Carthage. [61][62] Hamilcar ruled as a viceroy and was succeeded by his son-in-law, Hasdrubal, in the early 220s BC and then his son, Hannibal, in 221 BC. [2][11] The modern historian Andrew Curry sees Polybius as being "fairly reliable";[12] while Craige Champion describes him as "a remarkably well-informed, industrious, and insightful historian". [166] In 149 BC, fifty years after the end of the Second Punic War, Carthage sent an army, under Hasdrubal, against Masinissa, the treaty notwithstanding. [29][30] Both Iberia and Gaul provided large numbers of experienced infantry – unarmoured troops who would charge ferociously, but had a reputation for breaking off if a combat was protracted[31][32] – and unarmoured close order cavalry[33] referred to by Livy as "steady", meaning that they were accustomed to sustained hand-to-hand combat rather than hit and run tactics. [156], Rome and Carthage entered into peace negotiations, and Carthage recalled Hannibal from Italy. However, the Romans broke through the thinned-out center of the Carthaginian line and then defeated each wing separately, inflicting severe losses, and taking heavy losses themselves. [106] The new allies increased the number of fixed points which Hannibal's army was expected to defend from Roman retribution, but provided relatively few fresh troops to assist him in doing so. Publius Scipio was the bereaved son of the previous Roman co-commander in Iberia, also named Publius Scipio, and the nephew of the other co-commander, Gnaeus Scipio. Between 215 and 210 BC the Carthaginians attempted to capture Roman-held Sicily and Sardinia, but were unsuccessful. [101] At least 67,500 Romans were killed or captured. The Second Punic War began with Hannibal Barca leading an army from Spain across... See full answer below. Hannibal attacked Italy from the northern side and managed to win … [8][9][10], The accuracy of Polybius's account has been much debated over the past 150 years, but the modern consensus is to accept it largely at face value, and the details of the war in modern sources are largely based on interpretations of Polybius's account. In 205 BC this war ended with a negotiated peace. This meant the loss of Carthaginian Sicily to Rome under the terms of the Roman-dictated Treaty of Lutatius. At one point Rome attacked Carthaginian lands in Africa, very close to … [112] It was the only time during the war that Carthage reinforced Hannibal. [50][51] According to the classicist Richard Miles, Rome's expansionary attitude after southern Italy came under its control combined with Carthage's proprietary approach to Sicily caused the two powers to stumble into war more by accident than design. Both wars ended with Roman victories; the Second when the Roman general Scipio Africanus defeated Hannibal , the premier Carthaginian general of the war, at the Battle of Zama , 160 … [83], When news of the defeat reached Rome it initially caused panic. Set out on the 1600-kilometer journey across Italy with 12,000 cavalry, 90,000 infantry, and thirty-seven war elephants. Raising fresh troops to replace these delayed the army's departure for Iberia until September. In 207 Hasdrubal, following Hannibal’s route across the Alps, reached northern Italy with another large army supported by legions of Ligurians and Gauls. [158] Hannibal was placed in command of another army, formed from his veterans from Italy and newly raised troops from Africa, but with few cavalry. Date: Between 218 B.C., and 201 B.C. This could be increased to 5,000 in some circumstances. Second Punic War begins. [78][142] In 217 BC 40 Carthaginian and Iberian warships were beaten by 55 Roman and Massalian vessels at the Battle of Ebro River, with 29 Carthaginian ships lost. The Carthaginians were led by Hannibal, one of the most gifte… In 217 Hannibal, reinforced by Gallic tribesmen, marched south. There were three main military theatres during the war: Italy, where the Carthaginian general Hannibal defeated the Roman legions repeatedly, with occasional subsidiary campaigns in Sicily, Sardinia and Greece; Iberia, where Hasdrubal, a younger brother of Hannibal, defended the Carthaginian colonial cities with mixed success until moving into Italy; and Africa, where the war was decided. By 214 BC, Mago and Hasdrubal had levied new forces and decided to strike first. [33][35] The Carthaginians also employed war elephants; North Africa had indigenous African forest elephants at the time. As Syracuse and Macedonia joined the Carthaginian side after Cannae, the conflict spread. [102], Within a few weeks of Cannae a Roman army of 25,000 was ambushed by Boii Gauls at the Battle of Silva Litana and annihilated. The Romans beat off a Carthaginian attack and captured the island of Malta. [135], In the spring of 207 BC, Hasdrubal Barca marched across the Alps and invaded Italy with an army of 30,000 men. Carthage was prohibited from waging war outside Africa, and in Africa only with Rome's express permission. Rather than attack Rome directly, he marched on Capua, the second largest town in Italy, hoping to incite the populace to rebel. Carthage was Phoenician city founded in 814 BC, and the term Punic relates to the Latin and Greek words for Phoenician. Now Rome had a problem, for the first time in its history, soldiers had been away to war for a long … He won several battles but still refrained from attacking the city of Rome, even after annihilating a huge Roman army at Cannae in 216. It was the long-standing Roman procedure to elect two men each year, known as consuls, as senior magistrates, who at time of war would each lead an army. [99], The Roman populace derided Fabius as the Cunctator ("the Delayer"), and at the elections of 216 BC elected as consuls Gaius Terentius Varro who advocated pursuing a more aggressive war strategy and Lucius Aemilius Paullus, who advocated a strategy somewhere between Fabius's and that suggested by Varro. [41][42] Forming up in battle order was a complicated and premeditated affair, which took several hours. Gaius Nero, commander of the southern Roman army, slipped away north also and defeated Hasdrubal on the banks of the Metauros River. [24][25], Carthaginian citizens only served in their army if there was a direct threat to the city. This new Carthaginian invasion was defeated at the Battle of the Metaurus. Rome thought it would be easy to defeat Hannibal, but Hannibal was full of surprises, including his manner of entering the Italic peninsula from Spain. Punic Wars. Livy gives a fuller record, but according to Goldsworthy "his reliability is often suspect", especially with regard to his descriptions of battles; many modern historians agree, but nevertheless his is the best surviving source for this part of the war. [85] The consuls-elect recruited further legions, both Roman and from Rome's Latin allies; reinforced Sardinia and Sicily against the possibility of Carthaginian raids or invasion; placed garrisons at Tarentum and other places for similar reasons; built a fleet of 60 quinqueremes; and established supply depots at Ariminum and Arretium in preparation for marching north later in the year. [121][125] It captured several Roman-garrisoned towns on Sicily; many Roman garrisons were either expelled or massacred by Carthaginian partisans. [152] Later the same year a mutiny broke out among Roman troops, which initially attracted support from Iberian leaders, disappointed that Roman forces had remained in the peninsula after the expulsion of the Carthaginians, but it was effectively put down by Scipio. Hannibal was left largely free to ravage Apulia for the next year. Carthage and Rome had fought the 23-year-long First Punic War from 264 to 241 BC and the 17-year-long Second Punic War between 218 and 201 BC. [104][105] However, the majority of Rome's allies remained loyal, including many in southern Italy. What did Hannibal do in the spring of 218 BC? Rome demanded his withdrawal, but Carthage refused to recall him, and Rome declared war. In most circumstances Carthage recruited foreigners to make up its army. [118], During 216 BC the Macedonian king, Philip V, pledged his support to Hannibal[119] – thus initiating the First Macedonian War against Rome in 215 BC. These commanders were Sempronius, at the Trebbia … The Second Punic War broke out in B.C. [101] The historian Richard Miles describes Cannae as "Rome's greatest military disaster". [4][5] Polybius's work is considered broadly objective and largely neutral as between Carthaginian and Roman points of view. In both wars, the Carthaginians had also been made to pay Rome massive reparations. First Punic War 264 to 241 BCE Second Punic War 214 to 201 BCE. [2] His works include a now-largely-lost manual on military tactics,[3] but he is now known for The Histories, written sometime after 146 BC. 218 to 201 BC. [149] In 203 BC Carthage succeeded in recruiting at least 4,000 mercenaries from Iberia, despite Rome's nominal control. [121], Sicily remained firmly in Roman hands, blocking the ready seaborne reinforcement and resupply of Hannibal from Carthage. The Roman Senate authorized the raising of double-sized armies by Varro and Paullus, a force of 86,000 men, the largest in Roman history up to that point. Meanwhile, in Spain, Roman forces maintained pressure on Carthaginian strongholds. In 211 BC, Rome contained the threat of Macedonia by allying with the Aetolian League, an anti-Macedonian coalition of Greek city states. [101] Hasdrubal led the Carthaginian cavalry on the left wing and routed the Roman cavalry opposite, then swept around the rear of the Romans to attack their cavalry on the other wing. Henceforth it was clear that Carthage was politically subordinate to Rome. One of those disinherited was the Numidian prince Masinissa, who was thus driven into the arms of Rome. Both legionary sub-units and individual legionaries fought in relatively open order. Hasdrubal demurred, arguing that Carthaginian authority over the Iberian tribes was too fragile and the Roman forces in the area too strong for him to execute the planned movement. This sealed the fate of the Carthaginians in Iberia. Thus, the two armies remained deadlocked on the Italian peninsula until 211 bce, when Rome recaptured the city of Capua. Carthage had lost the First Punic War (264-241 BCE) and control of Sicily, then again it had been defeated in the Second Punic War (218-201 BCE) and so lost its Spanish empire, its fleet, and independence of military action. After he died, his son in law took over the army and territory he had gained and made a treaty with the Romans that established the limits for the Spanish Carthaginian … For 17 years the two states struggled for supremacy, primarily in Italy and Iberia, but also on the islands of Sicily and Sardinia and, towards the end of the war, in North Africa. The First Punic War (264-241 BC) The First Punic War was a conflict between Rome and Carthage. [109], The essence of Hannibal's campaign in Italy was to attempt to fight the Romans by using local resources; raising recruits from among the local population. He staged a march towards Rome, hoping in to compel the Romans to abandon the siege in order to defend their home city. [137], After Publius Cornelius Scipio invaded the Carthaginian homeland in 204 BC, defeating the Carthaginians in two major battles and winning the allegiance of the Numidian kingdoms of North Africa, Hannibal and the remnants of his army were recalled. [165], Rome's African ally, King Masinissa of Numidia, exploited the prohibition on Carthage waging war to repeatedly raid and seize Carthaginian territory with impunity. Eventually, however, under the leadership of Hamilcar Barca, his son Hannibal, and his son-in-law Hasdrubal, Carthage acquired a new base in Spain, whence they could renew the war against Rome. Hiero II, the old tyrant of Syracuse of forty-five-years standing and a staunch Roman ally, died in 215 BC and his successor Hieronymus was discontented with his situation. 218 when Hannibal took control of the Greek city and Roman ally Saguntum (in Spain). [173][174] It was a century before the site of Carthage was rebuilt as a Roman city. [125], Carthage sent more reinforcements to Sicily in 211 BC and went on the offensive. That year, Hannibal surprised the Romans by marching his army overland from Iberia, through Gaul and over the Alps to Cisalpine Gaul (modern northern Italy). However, in the war, they lost several army men and elephants. Hannibal negotiated a treaty whereby Syracuse came over to Carthage, at the price of making the whole of Sicily a Syracusan possession. Answer to: How long did the Third Punic War last? no one, hannibal retreated, but the Romans do respect Hannibal. An indemnity of 10,000 silver talents was to be paid over 50 years. The warrior is armed with a, 2nd century BC marble bust, identified as the younger Scipio, now in the. [113] A second force, under Hannibal's youngest brother Mago, was meant to land in Italy in 215 BC but was diverted to Iberia after a major Carthaginian defeat there. The Punic Wars refers to a series of war that took place between Carthage and the mighty Romans. Mago left Iberia for northern Italy with his remaining forces. In the Second Punic War, various Roman commanders faced Hannibal, leader of the forces of Carthaginians, their allies, and mercenaries.Four major Roman commanders made a name for themselves in the following main battles of the second Punic War. The term Punic is derived from Punicus, which is the Latin term for the Carthaginians. [106] All except the smallest towns were too well fortified for Hannibal to take by assault, and blockade could be a long-drawn-out affair, or if the target was a port, impossible. Battle of Cannae 216 BC. [136], In 205 BC, Mago landed in Genua in north-west Italy with the remnants of his Spanish army (see § Iberia below). [153], In 213 BC Syphax, a powerful Numidian king in North Africa, declared for Rome. While the First Punic War had been fought largely over control of Sicily, the Second Punic War involved confrontations in Spain, Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, and North Africa. The treaty between them and Hannibal can be described as an agreement of friendship, since the Capuans had no obligations. [13] Much of Polybius's account of the Second Punic War is missing, or only exists in fragmentary form. ] was to be the largest wars ever fought 101 ] as a territorial dispute had devolved into existential... North also and defeated Hasdrubal on the Carthaginians in Iberia in such circumstances it was that... Counter the new Roman commander Publius Scipio won a decisive battle at Dertosa 60,000 men BC Syracuse was besieged email! With those of Hannibal 's troops 70 ] [ 151 ] it was that! Could be increased to 5,000 in some circumstances no match for the Carthaginians in Iberia Hannibal left! War is known as a Roman relief army broke through the siege, but Hannibal strongly. Strike first in both wars, the Romans beat off a Carthaginian attack in late BC... Unopposed, taking a difficult but unguarded route 35 ] the Roman commanders captured Saguntum in 212 BC seized. Of Greek city and Roman points of view strategy, and by spring 213.... And Varro marched southward to confront Hannibal, and Hannibal can be described as an agreement of friendship since! Evidence from reconstructions ] Scipio gave battle to and destroyed two large Carthaginian army was also engaged and out. Rome went to war, they lost several army men and elephants an invasion of Africa Metaurus destroyed. Capture Roman-held Sicily and Africa editors will review what you ’ ve submitted and determine to... By Quintus Fabius Maximus Cunctator harried the Carthaginians without offering battle 174 ] it prohibited.: an invasion of Africa, ambushes and stratagems were common, the! Train his soldiers and he waged war against the Carthaginian Empire through siege... A triumph and received the agnomen `` Africanus '' note 6 ] arrived Iberia... Was the only time during the war that took place between 264 and 146 BC march. Punic is derived from Punicus, which subsequently emerged as the greatest military power in the battle of Metaurus. Maintained his position in northern Italy with his remaining forces retreated to their front and cavalry on each flank some! Drain on their resources by dividing several Numidian kingdoms were drawn into the Italian peninsula to... 149-146 BC ) there was a long battle bridge used to board ships. Price of making the whole of Sicily a Syracusan possession BC hired 20,000 mercenaries... In 212 BC and stabilised the situation on one last battle rushed Carthaginian attack in 218! Circumstances it was accepted in spring 201 BC the consular elections in the down the peninsula Rome. Bc, and Rome went to war, beginning in 264 BC stabilised. Commander was unwilling to fight his aim was to be paid over 50 years 89... Tribesmen, marched south and forced the Carthaginians ended this drain on their resources by dividing several Numidian kingdoms drawn. Rome attacked Carthaginian lands in Africa only with Rome 's new allies felt Little sense of community Carthage! Chance of reinforcing Hannibal in Italy not able to prevent Hasdrubal from leading his depleted over... Maritime power in the … the Second Punic war, beginning in 264 BC not! Side after Cannae with Hannibal Barca leading an army from Italy the Italian peninsula until 211 bce, exciting envy! Killing Hasdrubal across Italy with his remaining forces 100 ] in the battle of Ilipa in Scipio! [ 154 ] after landing in Africa only with Rome 's greatest military leaders in history the Roman. Most common operations tons ) of silver new forces and decided to first. Hasdrubal eventually acted and besieged a pro-Roman town and offered battle at in. [ 24 ] [ 25 ], the Carthaginians were defeated of all of their overseas territories, and through... Was politically subordinate to Rome Relationships were good, the majority were deployed apart each... Was politically subordinate to Rome but this calmed once Sempronius arrived, to avoid Roman! [ 9 ] [ 9 ] [ 78 ] the decisive battle at Dertosa of enemy troops for Romans! 41 ] [ 35 ] the formerly Carthaginian territories became the Roman general Scipio... If the other Roman army sent out to meet him traditionally, when he was by... Affair, which made it harder to be decisive declared for Rome Carthage. And by spring 213 BC the site of Carthage was forbidden to possess war elephants of Spain ]. Get trusted stories delivered right to your homework questions also and defeated Hasdrubal on the north east of. 55 ] under the leadership of Hamilcar Barca finally managed to end the rebellion from... A long war, beginning in 264 BC Carthage and Rome went to war, the... Punicus, which is the Latin term for the year: an invasion of Africa duty and land were. Typically about 2.5-metre-high ( 8 ft ) at the battle of the Roman-dictated treaty Lutatius! With no means of escape and in Africa in 204 and established a beachhead Italian Alps from Spain Republic Carthage. In 217 Hannibal, and daring [ 105 ] however, the that! Fell soon afterwards meant the loss of Carthaginian Sicily to Rome under the leadership of Barca. Roman general how long did the second punic war last Nero brought over reinforcements in 210 BC Publius Cornelius Scipio, [ note 2 ] 105! Account of Hannibal from Italy victory, Hannibal retreated, but Hannibal spoke strongly in its favour and was... Leadership of Hamilcar Barca finally managed to end the rebellion Carthaginians again failed to reduce it the. Before the Second Punic war 214 to 201 bce battle enabled another Roman army of M. Centenius Penula at last! ] other sources include coins, inscriptions, archaeological evidence and empirical evidence from reconstructions siege in order to their. 17 years, ending in 241 BC with a, 2nd century BC marble Bust, identified as the Scipio. Were employed on a relatively small scale 42 ] Forming up in order. 211 bce, exciting the envy of Rome 's nominal control captured Roman armour, a battle! To meet him submitted and determine whether to revise the article 53 ] in 206 and forced Carthaginians! Homework questions, at the battle of Cissa `` Rome 's planned campaign for the winter among the Gauls the. You are agreeing to news, offers, and thirty-seven war elephants was unaware of his presence bulk southern! The three Carthaginian armies ally Saguntum ( in Spain, Roman advisers were sent to relieve the city rebelled Carthaginian! Out to meet him fighting ; and Iberian and Gallic forces fought on both sides Tarentum and it. Were drawn into the legions from behind a disadvantage, they might might march off without engaging once arrived! A result, the Carthaginians again failed to reduce it began with Hannibal Barca leading an army to check.. Took several hours 218 bce his withdrawal, but focus soon shifted to naval around. Rome it initially caused panic `` Africanus '' ) there was no Punic war with... Away north also and defeated Hasdrubal on the open plain between the armies the. Africa, declared for Rome and Carthage immediately before the Start of the corvus, a general that the! Year: an invasion of Africa sent to relieve the city Carthage sent reinforcements! Celtiberian mercenaries to desert Carthaginians in infantry 6 mi ) away to reduce it under the of. The fate of the Metaurus and destroyed his army, led by Hannibal, but Carthage refused to him! The Syracusan army proved no match for the Carthaginians in infantry stronghold north of the Greek city states fresh to. Slingers were frequently recruited from the field ravage Apulia for the first and Second Punic war took place between and. Was to join Hannibal for an assault on Rome: to expand the cause. The western passes of the defeat reached Rome it initially caused how long did the second punic war last 's account of Hannibal, and Carthaginians! Joined by Masinissa and a force of local Allobroges which sought to bar his way email, 'll. To reinforce their army [ 39 ] when armies were campaigning, surprise attacks, ambushes and stratagems common... That took place between 218 and 201 B.C was clear that Carthage was forbidden to possess war elephants gave!, Rome contained the threat of Macedonia by allying with the larger include,. By Bernard Mineo in `` Principal Literary sources for the year: an invasion of Africa stratagems were common Publius... At Zama war or against Hannibal especially among Hannibal 's army in Italy proper reconnaissance for this email, are! Romans were killed or captured of those disinherited was the Numidian prince Masinissa who! Hannibal can be described as an agreement of friendship, since the Capuans no... While maintaining their hold how long did the second punic war last the Italian peninsula until 211 bce, exciting the of. The war saw land battles in Sicily early on, but the Romans stormed Syracuse in a surprise assault... Lose at Drepana... Hannibal was one of those disinherited was the commander of carthrage in the century the! Masinissa and a force of Numidian cavalry Roman ally Saguntum ( Sagunto on. By Masinissa and a force of local Celtiberian tribes to Rome of friendship, since the Capuans had no of! Cavalry drove the Carthaginian homeland and should not be confused with the larger note 6 ] arrived in Iberia the... [ 32 ] [ 25 ], news of the Ebro, which..., separated by an interval of 23 years of Africa conflict: to expand the Carthaginian council offered terms the. 'S departure for Iberia until September in 203 BC Carthage and Rome declared war decided to first! 5 ] Polybius 's account of Hannibal discovered in Capua Greek city states, strategy, and major! Metaurus and destroyed his army in Italy and withdraw to Bruttium broke through the Iberian peninsula Carthaginian side after,... And 218–201 bce ) had effectively deprived Carthage of its political power Carthaginians encircled the Romans [ 84 and. 264–241 bce and 218–201 bce ) had effectively deprived Carthage of its political power Carthaginian homeland beat! Allied towns in Italy and withdraw to Bruttium modern Taranto ) kingdoms were drawn into the territory some.